For hundreds of years the artillery was an important part of the Russian army. However, she achieved her power and flourishing during the Second World War - it was not by chance that she was called the "god of war". The analysis of the long-standing military company allowed for decades to determine the most promising directions of this kind of troops. As a result, today's Russian artillery has the necessary power both for effective combat operations in local conflicts and for repelling massive aggression.
The legacy of the past
New samples of Russian weapons "lead the genealogy" from the 60s of the XX century, when the Soviet army leadership took the course for a qualitative rearmament. Dozens of leading design bureaus, where outstanding engineers and designers worked, laid the theoretical and technical basis for creating the latest weapons.
The experience of previous wars and the analysis of the potential of foreign armies have clearly shown that the rate should be made for mobile self-propelled artillery and mortar installations. Thanks to the solutions of half a century ago Russian artillery has acquired a solid fleet of missile and artillery weapons on caterpillar and wheeled track, the basis of which is the "flower collection": from the brisk 122-mm howitzer "Gvozdika" to the formidable 240-mm "Tulip".
Barrel field artillery
Russian barrel artillery has a huge number of guns. They are in service with artillery units, units and formations of the Ground Forces and represent the basis of the firepower of units of marines and internal troops. The barrel artillery combines high firepower, accuracy and precision of fire with the simplicity of design and application, mobility, increased reliability, flexibility of fire, and also economical.
Many samples of towed guns are designed taking into account the experience of the Second World War. They are gradually being replaced in the Russian army by the self-propelled artillery guns developed in 1971-1975, optimized for performing fire missions even in the conditions of a nuclear conflict. Towed guns are supposed to be used in fortified areas and on secondary theaters of military operations.
At present Russian barrel artillery has the following samples of self-propelled guns:
- Floating howitzer 2S1 "Carnation" (122-mm).
- Howitzer 2СЗ "Acacia" (152-mm).
- Howitzer 2S19 "Msta-S" (152-mm).
- Gun 2S5 "Hyacinth" (152-mm).
- Gun 2S7 "Peony" (203-mm).
Active testing is a self-propelled howitzer with unique characteristics and the ability to shoot in the "squall of fire" 2C35 "Coalition-CB" (152-mm).
120 mm self-propelled guns 2S23 Nona-SVK, 2S9 Nona-S, 2S31 Vena and their towed analog 2B16 Nona-K are designed for fire support of combined arms units. A feature of these guns is that they can perform the functions of mortars, mortars, howitzers or anti-tank guns.
Along with the creation of highly effective anti-tank missile systems, considerable attention has been paid to the development of anti-tank artillery pieces. Their advantages over anti-tank missiles are primarily in the relative cheapness, simplicity of design and application, the ability to fire around the clock in all weathers.
Even more armor-piercing is also used in the arsenal of the RF towed FP 2A45M "Sprut-B". Behind the dynamic defense it is able to hit armor up to 770 mm thick. Self-propelled artillery of Russia in this segment is represented by the self-propelled gun 2С25 "Sprut-SD", recently coming into service to the paratroopers.
Modern artillery of Russia is inconceivable without mortars of various purposes and calibers. Russian models of this class of weapons are an exceptionally effective means of suppression, destruction and fire support. In the troops there are the following examples of mortar weapons:
- Automatic 2B9M "Vasilek" (82-mm).
- 2B14-1 "Tray" (82 mm).
- The mortar complex 2S12 "Sani" (120 mm).
- Self-propelled 2С4 "Tulip" (240-mm).
- M-160 (160-mm) and M-240 (240-mm).
Features \u0026 Features
If the mortars "Tray" and "Sani" repeat the designs of the models of the Great Patriotic War, then "Vasilek" is a fundamentally new system. It is equipped with automatic reloading mechanisms, which allows to fire with an excellent rate of fire of 100-120 rpm (compared to 24 ppm in the "Tray" mortar).
Russian artillery can be proud of the self-propelled mortar "Tulip", which also represents an original system. In the marching position, its 240-mm barrel is attached to the roof of the armored tracked chassis, in the combat - it rests on a special plate resting on the ground. In this case, all operations are performed using a hydraulic system.
Coastal artillery of Russia
Coastal troops in the Russian Federation as a kind of independent forces of the Navy was formed in 1989. The basis of its firepower is mobile rocket and artillery complexes:
- Redoubt (missile).
- 4K51 "Frontier" (missile).
- 3K55 "Bastion" (missile).
- 3K60 "Ball" (missile).
- A-222 "Bereg" (artillery 130-mm).
These complexes are truly unique and pose a real threat to any enemy fleet. The newest "Bastion" in combat duty since 2010, equipped with hypersonic missiles Onyx / Yakhont. During the Crimean events, several "Bastions", demonstratively stationed on the peninsula, thwarted plans for a "demonstration of power" from the NATO fleet.
The newest artillery of Russia coastal defense A-222 "Bereg" effectively works on small-sized high-speed vessels traveling at a speed of 100 knots (180 km / h), and medium surface ships (within 23 km of the complex), and ground targets.
Support heavy complexes are always ready for heavy artillery in the Coast Guard: SAU "Hyacinth-C", gun-howitzer "Hyacinth-B", gun-howitzer "Msta-B", howitzer D-20 and D-30, MLRS.
Reactive systems of volley fire
Since the Second World War, Russia's rocket artillery, as the successor to the USSR, has a powerful MLRS grouping. In the 1950s, a 122 mm 40-barrel BM-21 Grad system was created. The land forces of the Russian Federation have 4,500 such systems.
The BM-21 Grad was the prototype of the Grad-1 system, created in 1975 to equip tank and motorized rifle regiments, as well as a more powerful 220 mm Hurricane system for artillery units of the army unit. This line of development was continued by the long-range "Smerch" system with 300-mm shells and a new PROM division of the division "Prima" with an increased number of guides and rockets of increased power with a detachable head.
Conducted procurement of new MLRS "Tornado" — bikalibernoy system mounted on the chassis MAZ-543М. In the "Tornado-G" she is the fire of 122-mm rockets from MLRS "Grad", exceeding the latest efficiency threefold. In a variant of "Tornado-s", designed to fire 300 mm rockets, according to the ratio of combat effectiveness it is superior to Tornado in 3-4 times. "Tornado" goal, striking a volley and a single high-precision missiles.
Russian anti-aircraft artillery is represented by the following self-propelled small-caliber systems:
- The self-propelled self-propelled unit "Shilka" (23 mm).
- Self-propelled twin-unit "Tunguska" (30 mm).
- Self-propelled paired unit "Pantsir" (30 mm).
- Towed paired installation ZU-23 (2A13) (23 mm).
Self-propelled plants are equipped with a radio-complex, which provides for the capture and auto-tracking of the target, the production of data for guidance. Automatic gun guidance is performed using hydraulic drives. "Shilka" is an exclusively artillery system, and "Tunguska" and "Pantsir" are also armed with anti-aircraft missiles.