Blood pressure is what? This is the effect of blood on the walls of blood vessels. In other words, increasing the pressure of the fluid in the circulatory system in comparison with the atmospheric indices. Each stroke of the heart causes a fluctuation of blood pressure between the rarefaction and compression.
Systolic and diastolic pressure
It is believed that systolic is cardiac pressure, and diastolic is vascular pressure. Systolic blood pressure is what? It is obtained by contracting the heart muscle. Partly in its formation, the aorta, which acts as a buffer, is involved. Therefore, to assert that this is cardiac pressure is not entirely correct.
Diastolic blood pressure (lower), what does it mean? After contracting the heart, the aortic valve closes and blood does not flow into the heart. At this point, it is enriched with oxygen until further reduction. At this stage, blood moves passively through the blood vessels. This is the indicator of diastolic pressure.
The risk to life and the condition of internal organs carries an increased systolic pressure, since the diastolic index is significantly lower even in hypertensive crisis. The only evidence of increased diastolic pressure is that a person has persistent hypertension.
It should be noted that the pulse pressure is also allocated. The indices of arterial pressure should have a difference of 40-60 mm Hg. Art. A higher or lower value is undesirable, however, is not decisive in the diagnosis and therapy of the disease.
Hypertension is the scourge of modernity
In modern times, many people have high blood pressure. This phenomenon in medicine was called "hypertension". This ailment should alert, as it significantly increases the risk of heart attack, cerebral hemorrhage, threatens a violation of consciousness, can provoke hepatic and heart failure. In addition, the disease changes the walls of the vessels and the retina of the eyes, which can lead to a complete loss of vision. Elevated blood pressure is evidence of chronic vascular and cardiac diseases.
Studies confirm that blood pressure is increased in 40% of people. As a rule, men are more likely to develop the disease.
There are two types of hypertension: hypertension proper and arterial hypertension.
The difference in manifestations of hypertension in men and women
The main differences between hypertension in men and women:
- The number of male hypertensive patients is much higher in the period from 45 to 50 years. After 55 years of age, women suffer from hypertension more often.
- Hypertensive crises are mainly found in women, as they show great emotional lability.
- Symptomatic pathology is more pronounced in women, which is associated with life-changing changes in the hormonal sphere.
- Symptoms of hypertension in men are weaker, so they often have a heart attack or stroke.
Hypertension of mild degree
How does the arterial pressure manifest itself in this case? This disease, which is characterized by a slight rise in the systolic index to 140 mm Hg. Art. and diastolic to 100 mm Hg. Art. The indices of blood pressure are unstable. After a rest they can be normalized, but this does not mean that the disease has passed.
In the absence of proper therapy, the patient suffers:
At this stage, there is no hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart, the ECG is within the normal range. The structure of the fundus does not undergo any changes, the functionality of the kidneys is not disturbed.
How is the average degree manifested?
In this case, the blood pressure becomes higher. In rest it can reach 160/100 mm Hg. Art. Increased arterial pressure in adults is accompanied by migraine, heart pain in an ischemic type. At this stage, hypertensive crises are observed. The average degree differs from mild in having a lesion of target organs, hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart, a decrease in the level of blood circulation in the kidneys, and a change in the structure of the vessels.
From the side of the nervous system, vegeto-vascular dystonia is manifested, transient ischemic attacks and strokes are also possible. On the fundus there are exudates and hemorrhages.
How does the severe degree manifest itself?
The reasons for the increase in blood pressure lie in nervous overloads and constant experiences. Also, hypertension can develop in a person with a genetic predisposition to ailment. Not the least role is played by the environment.
The more stress a person suffers, the higher the likelihood of an ailment. With the timely treatment of hypertension, complications can be avoided. But, as a rule, people do not notice its signs and do not conduct treatment at the initial stage.
Even in a healthy person, pressure may increase. But they do not reach a critical level and do not pose a threat to health.
Elevated markers can be triggered by high levels of saturated acids in food. They are part of palm and coconut oil, and are also present in animal fat. For example, in products such as sour cream, butter, cheese, sausage, various snacks, chocolate, sweets. All these products contain a lot of calories, although at first glance they seem to be low-fat.
Another risk factor is the increased salt content in food. Many products contain hidden salt.
From a preventive point of view, you should eat only fresh food and do not abuse the semi-finished products. Refusal of foods containing salt would bring undeniable benefits to human health. Increased use of it contributes to the thinning of the vessels and their fragility.
Pressure can also increase from excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. In moderate doses, alcohol does not affect the condition of the heart, but in high amounts it contributes to the development of tachycardia. The rate of heart rate directly depends on the pressure.
The reasons for the increase in blood pressure are different:
- An intensive way of life, which is dictated by our era. A man daily performs enormous amounts of work and overcomes difficulties. Many people are engaged in the field of intellectual work, which entails an overstrain of the emotional sphere.
- Increased pressure can become nothing more than a physiological response to stress or stress at work. To overcome stress, you should choose a suitable method of relaxation, which will restore peace of mind.
- Another negative factor is smoking. With regular use of cigarettes, blood vessels tend to strain, losing their elasticity. Further, they undergo a narrowing. Calcium is deposited on their walls, which contributes to increased pressure.
- Increased pressure can be caused by obesity, the constitution of a person and other causes.
- Hypertension can occur after traumatic brain injuries.
If it is possible to establish the exact cause of the increase in pressure, then doctors deal with secondary symptomatic arterial hypertension, which can occur in the following states:
- kidney disease;
- failure in the endocrine system;
- cardiovascular pathologies;
- organic damage to the nervous system;
- functional disease of the nervous system;
- blood diseases.
In addition, the cause of the disease may be the taking of certain medications. For example, such as corticosteroids, tricyclic antidepressants, bronchodilators, anabolic steroids, lithium preparations, etc.
- In most cases, the patient does not feel an increase in blood pressure. That is why the disease was called "silent killer". It can provoke a sudden heart attack and stroke.
- As a rule, in the presence of increased blood pressure a person becomes anxious, he is sick. Often there are violations of heart contractions, migraine, tinnitus.
- It is also possible to reduce the quality of vision.
- With increased indications, the face and other areas of the skin redden, and the limbs become cold.
- If the pathology is present for a long time, the patient may have shortness of breath while working hard and even at rest, circulatory insufficiency, swelling.
- Often there is diplopia. Usually, in addition to doubling in the eyes, there are flies, which are provoked by the narrowing of the vessels.
- There is stenocardia and shortness of breath. Such symptoms are noted in older people who have additional cardiovascular diseases. With an excessive amount of fluid, the heart does not pump a sufficient volume of blood, which leads to stagnant phenomena in the lungs, manifested in dyspnea. It is also possible the appearance of pain in the heart.
- Nausea and vomiting are caused by increased intracranial pressure. Vomiting when crying does not bring relief.
Methods of diagnosis
After a close interview and making an anamnesis, the doctor can recommend the following examinations:
- Ultrasound. It makes it possible to evaluate the structure of blood vessels and internal organs with the help of high-frequency sound waves. This method can reveal the presence and level of narrowing of the kidneys, determine the properties of atherosclerotic plaques, the peculiarities of the blood flow, and also indicate the size of the kidneys.
- Carrying out angiography. It refers to the number of invasive methods, which allow to judge with accuracy the finding and level of narrowing of the lumen of the vessel. By means of a small catheter, carried out along the vessels of the kidneys, a contrast agent is introduced. Using the X-ray, a visual image of the vessels on the screen is obtained.
- The use of computer angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. These methods are based on the use of X-rays and magnetic fields. They make it possible to obtain a three-dimensional image of the vessels, as well as an image of the internal organs along the layers.
- Radionuclide method. It assumes the use of a special radioactive substance and a camera that allows an assessment of the blood flow in the kidneys and evaluate their functionality.
How is high blood pressure eliminated? Take medication should only be prescribed by a doctor. The specialist will be able to assess all the risk factors, select the right medicines and medical measures.
An invaluable benefit to health will be the reduction of salt intake, the rejection of tobacco products and the use of alcohol. It is also recommended to increase physical activity and relaxation.
Use of medicines
Usually, drugs that help reduce blood viscosity, normalize cholesterol, glucose and water-electrolyte balance are prescribed.
- Increased pressure (arterial and cardiac) can be corrected by monotherapy (using a single drug). Usually, this principle of treatment is applied to patients suffering from hypertension in a mild form. As a rule, thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are prescribed for patients with hypertensive disease of the 1st degree. The most common drugs of this group are "Chlortiazide", "Hypothiazide", "Chlortalidone".
- Combined treatment. Usually, it is prescribed to patients suffering from vascular and heart damage of medium and severe degree. Drugs contribute to a decrease in elevated BP, as well as a reduction in possible side effects.
Elevated blood pressure is a disease that can be eliminated surgically.
There are several methods of performing an operation on the kidney vessels.
- Endarterectomy involves the surgery of a cut on the arteries of the kidney, through which atherosclerotic plaques are removed and the patency of the vessel is restored.
- When prosthetics, the replacement of the site of the narrowed artery of the kidney by the patient's vein or a special prosthesis representing an artificial vessel is made.
- Shunting, which creates a workaround for the advancement of blood vessels.
Stenting and angioplasty
These are relatively new methods of therapy. They have a sufficiently high level of effectiveness in the treatment of narrowing of the kidney vessels. The procedure is performed with angiographic examination. To this end, through small punctures, catheters are introduced to the arteries in the kidneys. At the end of the catheter is a small can. When it is inflated, the atherosclerotic plaque is crushed and squeezed against the artery wall. So the narrowed section undergoes expansion. This procedure is called balloon angioplasty.
Often for the stability of the effect and preservation of the lumen, extended angioplasty is complemented by stenting. The method involves the installation in a narrowed artery of a special device made of metal - a stent.
What complications causes hypertension?
The effect of blood pressure in case of its increase is negative. Doctors testify that people suffering from hypertension have a risk of developing atherosclerosis. Therefore, such patients often have a heart attack or stroke. Also hypertension can provoke lameness, as the normal flow of blood to the legs is disturbed.
What influences high blood pressure. Vessels and the heart suffer in the first place. The heart works in a strengthened mode, which causes a change in blood circulation in a small and large circle. This causes shortness of breath, expectoration of blood, swelling. Such manifestations can lead to death.
Very dangerous complications are changes in the brain. If the pressure increase torments a person for a long time, then in the retinal vessels there are minute hemorrhages and deposits of cholesterol. This leads to a violation of blood circulation, which causes retinopathy. With this disease, vision is obscured. In some cases, a person may generally lose the ability to see.
Which device is used to measure blood pressure?
Tonometer of arterial pressure is used to establish accurate indices. It can be a mechanical and automatic configuration.
The drawback of the first model is that when working with it there is a human factor. With such a device it is difficult to work for people with low hearing and old people.
The automatic tonometer is more accurate, but on the recommendation of specialists, when using the device should be clearly adhere to all the rules stated in the passport.
Daily monitoring of arterial pressure
The method helps to identify a hidden threat. During the procedure, the patient wears a special apparatus for two days on the body, which records the pressure indices in natural conditions.
Daily arterial pressure gives the doctor a clear picture of a person's condition and helps to identify the patient's hypertension or hypertension caused by diseases of the internal organs.
For the purpose of prevention, it is recommended to normalize the mode of work and rest. The duration of sleep should be at least 8 hours a day. It is advisable to fall asleep and wake up at the same time. It is also recommended to change the style of work, to limit travel and watch at night.
It is important to observe the right diet. It should be high-grade and include such products as fish, meat without fat, cereals and fruits. It is also recommended to reduce salt intake.
The level of physical activity is supposed to be increased, but within the limits of the norm. You can not overstrain yourself.
In hypertension, swimming and walking are recommended, which help strengthen the nervous system and heart muscle.
It is necessary to carry out psychological unloading. Stress provokes an increase in pressure, so patients are advised to master the technique of meditation, self-hypnosis. It is important to learn to look at life optimistically and constantly adjust your character, striving for peace of mind. It is necessary to abandon bad habits.