Blood pressure is what is it? This is the effect of blood on the walls of blood vessels. In other words, the increase in fluid pressure in the circulatory system compared with atmospheric parameters. Each heart beat causes a fluctuation in blood pressure between underpressure and compression.
Systolic and diastolic pressure
It is believed that systolic - is the heart pressure, and diastolic - vascular. Systolic blood pressure - what is it? It is obtained by reducing the heart muscle. Partly in the formation of its participation is the aorta, which acts as a buffer. Therefore, to assert that this heart pressure is not entirely correct.
Diastolic blood pressure (lower), what does this mean? After a contraction of the heart, the aortic valve closes and blood does not flow to the heart. At this point, it is enriched with oxygen until further reduction. At this stage, the blood moves through the vessels passively. This is an indicator of diastolic pressure.
The danger to the life and condition of the internal organs carries increased systolic pressure, since the diastolic index is significantly lower even in hypertensive crisis. The only evidence of increased diastolic pressure is that the person has persistent hypertension.
It should be noted that the pulse pressure is also released. Blood pressure indicators should have a difference of 40-60 mm Hg. st. A higher or lower rate is undesirable, however, is not critical in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Hypertension - the scourge of modern times
In modern times, very many people have high blood pressure. This phenomenon in medicine has been called "hypertension". This disease should be alerted, since it significantly increases the risk of heart attack, cerebral hemorrhage, threatens with impaired consciousness, and can provoke hepatic and heart failure. In addition, the disease changes the walls of blood vessels and retina, which can lead to complete loss of vision. High blood pressure is evidence of chronic vascular and heart disease.
Research confirms that blood pressure is elevated in 40% of people. As a rule, men are more susceptible to the disease.
There are two types of hypertension: hypertension itself and arterial hypertension.
The difference in the manifestations of hypertension in men and women
The main differences between hypertension in men and women:
- The number of male hypertensive patients is much higher in the period from 45 to 50 years. After 55 years, women are more likely to suffer from hypertension.
- Hypertensive crises are mostly found in women, as they show greater emotional lability.
- The symptomatology of the pathology is more pronounced in women, which is associated with the changes in the hormonal sphere that occur throughout life.
- Symptoms of hypertension in men is less pronounced, so they often have a heart attack or stroke.
How does blood pressure manifest itself in this case? This disease, which is characterized by a slight increase in the systolic index to 140 mm Hg. st. and diastolic to 100 mm Hg. st. Blood pressure indicators are unstable. After rest, they can normalize, but this does not mean that the disease has passed.
In the absence of proper therapy, the patient is tormented by:
At this stage, the hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart is not observed, the ECG is within normal limits. The structure of the fundus of the eye does not undergo any changes, the kidney functionality is not impaired.
How does the average degree manifest?
In this case, the blood pressure becomes higher. At rest, it can reach 160/100 mm Hg. st. Increased blood pressure in adults is accompanied by migraine, ischemic-type pain in the heart. In this stage, hypertensive crises are observed. The average degree differs from the easy presence of target organ damage, left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart, a decrease in blood circulation in the kidneys and changes in the structure of blood vessels.
From the nervous system, vegetative dystonia is manifested, transient ischemic attacks and strokes are also possible. On the fundus exudates and hemorrhages are noted.
How is severe?
The reasons for the increase in blood pressure lie in nerve overloads and constant experiences. Also, hypertension can develop in a person with a genetic predisposition to illness. Not the last role is played by the environment.
The more stress a person suffers, the higher the likelihood of illness. With the timely treatment of hypertension, complications can be avoided. But, as a rule, people do not notice its signs and do not carry out treatment at the initial stage.
Even in a healthy person, pressure may increase. But they do not reach a critical point and do not pose a threat to health.
Increased elevations can be triggered by high levels of saturated acids in food. They are part of palm and coconut oil, and are also present in animal fat. For example, in such products as sour cream, butter, cheese, sausage, various snacks, chocolate, sweets. All of these foods contain many calories, although at first glance they seem to be lean.
Another risk factor is elevated salt in food. Many foods contain hidden salt.
From a preventive point of view, you should use only fresh food and not abuse the semi-finished products. Rejection of products containing salt, would have an undeniable benefit to human health. Its increased use contributes to the thinning of blood vessels and their fragility.
Pressure may also increase from excessive drinking. In moderate doses, alcohol does not affect the state of the heart, but in elevated amounts contributes to the development of tachycardia. From the heart rate directly depends on the pressure indicator.
The reasons for the increase in blood pressure are different:
- Intensive lifestyle, which is dictated by our era. A person performs huge amounts of work every day and overcomes difficulties. Many people are engaged in the field of intellectual work, which entails an overstrain of the emotional sphere.
- Increased pressure may become nothing more than a physiological reaction to stress or tension at work. To overcome stress, you should choose the appropriate method of relaxation, which will allow you to return peace of mind.
- Another negative factor is smoking. With regular use of cigarettes, blood vessels tighten, losing their elasticity. Further, they are subject to narrowing. Calcium is deposited on their walls, which increases the pressure.
- Increased pressure can be caused by obesity, a person's constitution, and other causes.
- Hypertension can occur after traumatic brain injury.
If it is possible to establish the exact cause of the increase in pressure, then the doctors deal with secondary symptomatic hypertension, which can occur in the following conditions:
- kidney disease;
- failure of the endocrine system;
- cardiovascular pathology;
- organic damage to the nervous system;
- functional disease of the nervous system;
- blood diseases.
In addition, the cause of the disease may be taking certain medications. For example, such as corticosteroids, tricyclic antidepressants, bronchodilators, anabolic steroids, lithium preparations, etc.
- In most cases, the patient does not feel an increase in blood pressure. That is why the disease was called "silent killer." It can trigger a sudden heart attack and stroke.
- As a rule, in the presence of high blood pressure a person becomes anxious, he becomes sick. Often there is a violation of contractions of the heart, migraine, tinnitus.
- It may also reduce the quality of vision.
- At elevated levels, the face and other areas of the skin redden, and the limbs become cold.
- If the pathology is present for a long time, the patient may experience shortness of breath with intensive work and even at rest, circulatory failure, swelling.
- Often there is diplopia. Usually, in addition to double vision in the eyes, flies appear, which are provoked by narrowing of the vessels.
- Angina and dyspnea appear. Such symptoms are observed in older people who have additional diseases of the cardiovascular system. With an excess amount of fluid, the heart does not pump a sufficient amount of blood, which leads to congestion in the lungs, manifested in shortness of breath. The appearance of pain in the heart is also possible.
- Nausea and vomiting are caused by increased intracranial pressure. Vomiting during a crisis does not bring relief.
After a careful survey and anamnesis, the doctor may recommend the following examinations:
- Ultrasound. It makes it possible to evaluate the structure of the vessels and internal organs using high-frequency sound waves. Through this method, it is possible to identify the location and level of vasoconstriction of the kidneys, to determine the properties of atherosclerotic plaques, the characteristics of blood flow, and also to determine the size of the kidneys.
- Conducting angiography. Refers to the number of invasive methods, allowing to judge with accuracy the location and level of the narrowing of the vessel lumen. A contrast agent is injected through a small catheter through the renal vessels. With the help of x-rays obtained a visual image of the vessels on the screen.
- The use of computer angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. These methods are based on the use of x-rays and a magnetic field. They make it possible to obtain a three-dimensional image of the vessels, as well as an image of the internal organs in layers.
- Radionuclide method. It assumes the use of a special radioactive substance and a chamber, which allows to evaluate the blood flow in the kidneys and evaluate their functionality.
How is high blood pressure eliminated? Take drugs should only be prescribed by a doctor. The specialist will be able to evaluate all risk factors, select the necessary medicines and medical measures.
Invaluable health benefits will come from reducing salt intake, avoiding tobacco and alcohol. Increased physical activity and relaxation are also recommended.
Usually prescribed drugs that reduce blood viscosity, normalization of cholesterol, glucose and water-electrolyte balance.
- Increased pressure (arterial and cardiac) can be corrected through monotherapy (using a single drug). Usually, this principle of treatment applies to patients with mild hypertension. As a rule, thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are prescribed to patients with grade I hypertension. The most common drugs in this group are Chlorothiazide, Hypothiazide, Chlorthalidone.
- Combined treatment. It is usually prescribed to patients suffering from vascular and cardiac lesions of moderate and severe degree. Drugs help to reduce elevated blood pressure, as well as reduce possible side effects.
High blood pressure is a disease that can be eliminated surgically.
There are several methods of operation on the vessels of the kidneys.
- Endarterectomy involves the surgeon making an incision in the kidney artery, through which atherosclerotic plaques are removed and the vessel’s patency is restored.
- When prosthetics, a portion of the constricted artery of the kidney is replaced by the patient's vein or by a special prosthesis representing an artificial vessel.
- Shunting, which creates a workaround to advance through the blood vessels.
Stenting and angioplasty
These are relatively new therapies. They have a fairly high level of effectiveness in the treatment of vasoconstriction of the kidneys. The procedure is carried out with angiographic examination. To this end, catheters are introduced to the arteries in the kidney through small punctures. At the end of the catheter is a small balloon. When it is inflated, an atherosclerotic plaque is crushed and pressed against the wall of the artery. So the narrowed area is subject to expansion. This procedure is called balloon angioplasty.
Often, angioplasty is supplemented by stenting to maintain the effect and preserve the lumen. The method involves the installation of a special device made of metal - a stent into the narrowed artery.
What complications cause hypertension?
The effect of blood pressure in case of its increase is negative. Doctors testify that people with hypertension have a risk of atherosclerosis. Therefore, these patients often have a heart attack or stroke. Also, hypertension can cause lameness, since the normal flow of blood to the legs is disrupted.
What does high blood pressure affect? Vessels and the heart suffer first. The heart works in an enhanced mode, which causes a change in blood circulation in the small and large circle. It causes shortness of breath, expectoration of blood, swelling. Such manifestations can be fatal.
Very dangerous complications are changes in the brain. If an increase in pressure torments a person for a long time, then the smallest hemorrhages and cholesterol deposits appear in the retinal vessels. This leads to impaired blood circulation, which causes retinopathy. In this disease, vision is dimmed. In some cases, a person may even lose the ability to see.
What device is used to measure blood pressure?
To establish accurate indicators used blood pressure tonometer. It can be mechanical and automatic configuration.
The disadvantage of the first model is that when working with it there is a human factor. With such a device is difficult to work for people with reduced hearing and the elderly.
The automatic tonometer is more accurate, but according to the recommendation of experts, when using the device, it is necessary to strictly follow all the rules set forth in the passport.
Daily blood pressure monitoring
The method helps to identify the hidden threat. During the procedure, the patient for two days wears a special apparatus on his body, which records pressure indicators in natural conditions.
Ambulatory blood pressure gives the doctor a clear picture of the human condition and helps to identify the patient with hypertension or hypertension caused by diseases of the internal organs.
With the purpose of prevention it is recommended to normalize the mode of work and rest. Sleep duration should be at least 8 hours a day. It is advisable to fall asleep and wake up at the same time. It is also recommended to change the style of work, to limit travel and duty at night.
Important is the observance of the correct diet. It must be complete and include products such as fish, meat without fat, cereals, vegetables and fruits. It is also recommended to reduce salt intake.
The level of physical activity should be increased, but within normal limits. You can not overdo it.
With hypertension, swimming and walking are recommended, helping to strengthen the nervous system and the muscles of the heart.
It is necessary to carry out psychological relief. Stress provokes an increase in pressure, so patients are encouraged to master the technique of meditation, self-hypnosis. It is important to learn to look at life optimistically and constantly adjust your character, striving for peace of mind. It is necessary to give up bad habits.