Military parade in Moscow on red square in the spring of 2015 was undoubtedly a historic event. On it numerous spectators around the world were able to see so many new techniques, what was not for all history of similar events. Of particular interest was the screening of a new model battle tank T-14 “Armata”.
But, of course, very few people know what is so good about the Russian tank "Armata" and what are its differences from its predecessors. About this and talk further.
New solutions in armor protection
The most important difference from the traditional tank – tower. It was uninhabited, and fire control conducted remotely. This solution allowed us to move the crew in a separate compartment. It is fully armored – a kind of tank in the tank.
Today you can see a lot of reports from the Donbass, where a T-72 with a broken or even severed tower is the consequences of the detonation of shells and the charging of the cartridges in the autoloader. As a result of such contact with the crew, as a rule, is undermined too.
The task of rescuing the crew in the T-14 is solved radically: all three crew members are in the armored capsule, and the central combat compartment with the automatic submachine gun and the weapon is uninhabited.
This design allows the crew to wait for the attack before approaching a repair group or power support even when the projectile hits the power plant and the combat vehicle leaves the battlefield.
This is a new approach in tank. Russia already has a beautiful T-90 tank, and the problem of security because of the placement of ammunition near the crew survived too. A direct hit enemy tank ammunition inevitably leads to rush of cars and the death of the crew.
For security reasons the thickness of the armor of the new machines released, but we can assume that protection "Armata" will be worse than T-90. But, nevertheless, it is known that manufacturers have a new development of steel armor.
New steel will greatly facilitate the car because it will be applied not only for the purpose of body armor, and even as a separate structural element. Steel as well as ceramic and composite materials, this set will protect the “Armata” from the falling shells fired from any guns.
If we talk about the Western analogues, then the weak armor protection of the sides and the stern of the Abrams tanks was repeatedly the subject of the Americans' headache during the military operation Desert Storm.
Chelyabinsk GSKB "Transdiesel" for the new tank has developed a power plant, which will be produced at ChTZ.
Now on the new tank “Armata” is set to 1200-horsepower diesel installation A-85-3A (12Н360). For tank engines, the service life of a new power plant is not less than 2000 hours when the weight of the engine up to 5 tons. Besides this motor has good prospects for further modernization.
The engine placement on the platform “Armata” it is assumed the maximum to standardize for different types of combat vehicles. Most likely, the tank will be with the rear location of the engine-transmission Department. While a variety of self-propelled guns and infantry fighting vehicles on a new platform can be from the front of the engine compartment.
Such variants allow maximum unification of the "Armata" platform itself, which will allow building many other combat vehicles on its base.
The more interesting the concept of “Armata”? The tank is also promising and the fact that it is expected to develop information and control system “digital Board”. Under its control should be started, engine control, diagnostics, adjustment, protection like on-Board computers installed on modern cars. Such electronics can be used in the event of a breakdown will test the system and report what is broken, and suggest options for remedying the malfunction.
Combined barrel for projectiles and missiles
The main tank cannon installed on domestic tanks were version of 2A46M cannon. Modification of this gun 2A46M-5 has the accuracy to 20% higher when the total dispersion is 1.7 times lower than its predecessor.
After the modifications, the new cannon is capable of firing the latest armor-piercing and subcaliber shells of increased power.
With the goal of improving combat characteristics of the gun 2A82 for installation on a promising tank “Armata” upgraded, extending the trunk up to 7 m. In this case, for the correction of the projectile due to the curve of the barrel when firing a volley, a system for automatic correction. This is achieved by mounting the reflector UUI (device accounting for the bend). Received data received by the device, after digital processing are transmitted as corrections to the ballistic computer.
The 2A82 can fire new ammunition of BPS "Vacuum-1" (the length of the projectile is 900 mm). Also, a new gun was developed and "Telnik" with a blast on the line of movement and URS 3UBK21 "Sprinter".
The entire ammunition is placed in a special module, which increases the "survivability", if the enemy shell hits the shell.
The serial production of promising shells has already been started and supplies of new machines have been set up, and arsenal reserves have been created for the new Armata tank.
But Russian gunsmiths intend to continue to modernize the 82nd gun and ammunition for it.
By tradition, the "Armata" platform did not remain without machine-gun weapons. The tank will be equipped with two machine guns.
One of them is paired PKTM (6П7К), which is located in a special compartment on the outside of the tower. The gun connects to the gun of the special parallelogram drive. A set of 1000 rounds tucked directly into the machine gun and 1,000 rounds in the belts are in a box of ZIP behind the tower.
On the roof of the tower is installed a 12.7 mm machine gun “KORD”. For ease of aiming, it works synchronously with the commander's view. Angles of attack from -10⁰ to 70⁰. The ammunition of 300 rounds of ammunition is directly loaded in the gun, and another 300 rounds in the tape are in the box ZIP on the rear of the turret. The gun can be used for firing both ground and air targets. To combat the latter on the machine additionally installed anti-aircraft missiles.
Equipping the tank with KAZ
With incoming shells and rockets fighting all the equipment on the basis of “Armata” tank will also be equipped with a complex KAZ “Afghani”. Spectorate when approaching enemy shells at a distance less than 15-20 meters work, and the cloud of small fragments striking the approaching targets.
The work of KAZ "Afghanistan"
The system of “Afghani” performs a very difficult task – to intercept the inbound high-speed missiles that fly at a speed of 2500-3000 m/s. As the results shown in the tests KAZ “Barrier”, the reaction time response for a potential threat equal to 0.001 seconds. Based on this, the minimum distance of the intercept is equal to 4 meters.
Thus, the system will automatically operate on incoming explosive devices and are guaranteed to destroy them even on approach to the tank.
Principle of operation of KAZ
The complex itself is “Afghani” is designed Kolomna KBM. The launcher is placed on a carriage, which has two planes of rotation – vertical and horizontal. Fuses are triggered and leads to the goal software, they are located at the rear side of the warhead.
Active protection system, which has the new Russian tank “Armata” can detect and track multiple potential targets. This system is equipped with a radar phased array an antenna array and electronic control unit, equipped with high-speed processor.
Such a complex of equipment makes it possible to recognize all types of existing ammunition, including tandem shells, which are divided on approach to the target.
If the projectiles are fired from an automatic cannon, the system intercepts and fires on the projectiles fired in accordance with the enemy's firing rate.
According to Oleg Bochkarev, the deputy chairman of the board of the presidential military-industrial complex, the state testing of the Armata tank will be carried out during 2016.
In order to protect against the defeat of shells that have crossed the line of "Afghanistan", on the perimeter of the tank on the body and the tower are placed blocks of dynamic protection and screen grids.
The aft area of the gun turret and back of the case is protected by latticed screens. Rest areas are covered with blocks of dynamic protection, which are placed on the sides of the tower only on the shelves.
The design of the blocks is the same as the blocks of dynamic protection, developed by JSC "Institute of steel" – the containers with elements of dynamic protection. The units themselves are mounted on a battle tank “Armata” just before the fighting.
Fire Control System
All information for crew on a combat situation comes to monitors with laser, television and thermal imaging sensors. Data can also be transmitted via closed channels as the command post and other tanks. This allows the remote to direct the fire of several tanks simultaneously in automatic mode.
To date, the most promising combat vehicle is the Armata tank, whose characteristics exceed the performance of similar tanks of other countries by 25-30%.
- Increase in the sighting channel, multiplicity 4:12.
- Detect enemy tanks at a distance of up to 3.5 km.
- The range limit for the range finder is up to 7.5 km.
- Recognition of the tank on the TV channel - up to 5 km.
- Recognition of enemy tanks on the TP-channel - up to 3.5 km.
- Sights of the commander combined TP and TV channels.
- Places of the gunner and the commander are equipped with a ballistic computer.
- The gunner's sightings are multi-channel with two channels - sighting and laser range finders. Laser control channel, built-in.
T-14 "Armata" is a tank with unlimited possibilities for modernization, as it is considered to be the most avant-garde development in tank building.
The system, which has the new Russian tank “Armata”, keep under surveillance, and monitors the flight path at the same time up to 40 dynamic and 25 aerodynamic targets. The radius of the control site monitoring – up to 10 km the System is able to automatically destroy the targets with dimensions up to 0.3 meters that fall into the affected area.
In addition, the new machine runs a diagnostic system of the tank. During the clashes, the program automatically assesses the threat from the enemy and chooses the course of action so that the tank modules is not out of order. A similar system is that of tanks “Leopard-2”.
The system, consisting of a huge number of hundreds of microwave transmitters AFAR, determines the coordinates and parameters of a potential threat and gives the command to the tank to destroy targets.
TTX of the Armata tank
- Weight - 55 tons.
- Crew - 3 people.
- Combined, multi-layer armor with armored crew capsule.
- Active protection system of "Afghanistan" type.
- Dynamic protection systems of the "Malachite" type.
- The gun is smooth-bore 2A82-1M, 125 mm.
- Machine guns 7.62 PKTM and 12.7 × 108 mm KORD.
- Power plant A-85-3A (12N360), 1500 hp
- Cruising speed on the highway - 75-90 km / h.
- Suspension is active.
- Detection of the target is more than 5 km.
- Defeat the target at a range of 7-8 km.
- Presence of round-robin cameras.
- Detection of targets by thermal imager.
- Complex of dynamic protection.
- Ammo protection active type.
Opinions of foreign experts
According to a military-political expert and former intelligence officer Y. Kedmi, the Russian tank “Armata” far ahead technically of the other tanks of the NATO countries on the advanced solutions that are applied to a new combat vehicle.
Generation of tanks “Armata” is intended to replace the techniques of cold war era tanks T-64, T-72, T-80. The tank on the platform “Armata” allows you to replace numerous other combat vehicles. By 2030, Russia will completely renew the entire fleet of military equipment. More recently, the domestic tank building focused on T-90 tank. Now the “Armata” is designed to radically change the principles of tank development, not only in Russia but throughout the world.