Interpretation of the concept under consideration
Archetypes are translated from Greek as “prototype”. This term is widely used in the theoretical analysis of mythology. It was first introduced by the Swiss psychoanalyst Gustav Jung. In addition to psychology, he also studied the existing myths.
Archetypes according to Jung are primary schemes of different images that are reproduced unconsciously and a priori form the activity of imagination, as a result of which they are embodied, as a rule, in myths, beliefs, dreams, delusional fantasies, works of literature and art.
Archetypical images, motifs are identical in character (for example, the ubiquitous ancient myth telling about the Flood) and are found in nowhere mythologies and spheres of art that do not touch each other, so you can exclude the explanation of their appearance by borrowing.
But nevertheless archetypes are, first of all, not images in themselves, but only their schemes. In other words, the psychological background, the possibility. According to Jung, the archetypes have a limited knowledge of not a meaningful, but an exceptional formal characteristic.
The first characteristic of a schematic image gets only after penetrating into the area of consciousness, being filled with the material of experience. The form of the archetype Jung identifies with a certain system of axes of a certain crystal, transforming it to a certain extent in the mother liquor, despite the absence of material existence in it. In this regard, the process of myth-making is the transformation of the concept under consideration into an image. According to the researcher, these are involuntary statements about spiritual events that are unconscious in nature.
Despite its formality, extreme generalization, vacuity, a schematic image (archetype) has the property. Psychologists believe that, depending on their degree of clarity and emotional richness, they can impress, enthrall, inspire in view of the fact that they are striving for the habitual beginnings within the framework of human nature. As a result, the importance of original images for creativity (artistic).
Based on the statements of Jung, the mystery of the influence of art is the artist’s special ability to feel certain archetypal forms, and later to display them in the works.
One of the best short formulations of the concept of the archetype belongs to Thomas Mann, according to which the typical is largely composed of the mythical, because myth is a priori pattern, so to speak, the original life form, the pattern out of time, the formula given by distant ancestors, complete with self-aware life, and implicitly aimed at re-acquiring the signs she had foretold.
Jung assumed the inherentness of the concepts under consideration throughout the genus (humanity as a whole, its community). In other words, the archetypes of the collective unconscious are inherited. The role of the receptacle (“dimensions of the soul”) for the primordial images he “gave” directly to the deep unconscious, which goes beyond the boundaries of the personality.
In the process of studying myths, this concept aims at searching among the ethnic, typological diversity of relevant plots, motifs of the archetypical core (invariant), which is expressed by them (mythologemes) through metaphors, but which cannot be exhausted by any scientific explanation or poetic description.
Examples of archetypes
Nevertheless, Gustav wanted to outline the systematics of the concepts under consideration. For this, he formulated, for example, such archetypes of the unconscious, as "Shadow "(The pre-human unconscious component of the psyche, which Jung identified with the heroes of literary works: Goethe's Mephistopheles in Faust, Sturluson Loki in Younger Edda, Hogni in German epic poem Song of the Nibelungs),"Anima "(The human unconscious beginning of the opposite sex, transmitted in the form of images of bisexual creatures from primitive myths, Chinese categories Yin-Yang, etc.),"Wise old man »(Primitive spirit, meaning, hiding behind the chaos of life and presented as a wise wizard, shaman, Nietzscheus Zarathushtra). The mythology of the Great Mother is archetypically interpreted in various variations (Goddess, Witch, Norm, Moira, Kibela, Demeter, Mother of God, etc.). All these examples represent the prototype of the highest female being, which embodies the feeling (psychological) of a change of generations, immortality, overcoming the so-called power of time.
The archetypal role of the images of Prometheus, Epimethea Jung presents as an opposition in the psyche "Self "(Individual and personal beginning), in particular, its part, facing outward ("Person »).
The value of the concept and the provisions of the doctrine about it
Both strongly influenced the thoughts, works of researchers of religion, myth (collaborated with Gustav Karl Kereni Fry, English mythologist Monty Bodkin), theologians, philosophers (German scientist Paul Tillich) and even non-human scientists (biologist Adolph Portman), prominent figures of art, literature (German Hesse, Federico Fellini, Thomas Mann, Ing Mar Bergman).
Jung himself did not consistently reveal the existing interdependence of archetypes, which act as elements of psychostructures, and mythological images that are products of primitive consciousness. He understood it first as an analogy, then as an identity, then as a product of one another. In this regard, in the later literature, the term under consideration is simply used as a designation of common, fundamental, universal motives (mythological), initial schemes of representations that underlie any kind of structures (for example, the world tree) without the necessary connection with so-called Jungianism. .
The main archetypes of Jung
The number of prototypes within the collective unconscious tends to infinity. But still a special place in his theoretical system is given to: “Mask”, “Anime” (“Animus”), “Samosti”, “Shadows”.
This archetype in translation from Latin means a personage - the public face of a person. In other words, the way people manifest themselves in interpersonal relationships. The mask symbolizes the many roles played by a person in accordance with existing social requirements.
In the perception of Jung, it serves the purpose: to make a special impression on other people or to conceal from them their true inner essence. “Person” as an archetype is always necessary for a person in order, so to speak, to get along with the others in the framework of everyday life. But Jung warned in his concepts about the consequences of giving this archetype significance. In particular, a person becomes superficial, shallow, and he will be allocated only one single role, he will remain in alienation from the true colorful emotional experience.
This is the opposite of the "Mask". “Shadow” is the dark, bad, animal side of the personality, repressed in man. This archetype contains human socially unacceptable aggressive, sexual impulses, as well as immoral passions and thoughts. However, it has a number of positive features.
Jung regarded “Shadow” as a source of endless vitality, creativity, spontaneity in the fate of an individual. In accordance with the concept of this researcher, the main function of the Ego is to correct the desired energy direction of the archetype in question, curb the harmful side of human nature to a certain extent, allowing you to live in constant harmony with other people, and simultaneously openly expressing your impulses, the possibility of enjoying health and creative life.
Prototype "Anima", "Animus"
According to Jung, the innate androgenic human nature is concentrated in them. The first archetype identifies the internal female image in a man (the unconscious female side), and the second - the male principle in the female (unconscious male side).
These archetypes of humans are partially based on an existing biological fact: in the human body, both male and female hormones are produced. They have evolved, according to Jung, for centuries within the collective unconscious as a result of the experience of the process of interaction with the opposite sex. Some men were a bit “feminized”, and women were “chauvinized” because of many years of living together. Karl argued that these archetypes, like the rest, should coexist harmoniously, that is, not to disturb the overall balance, in order not to provoke an inhibition of personality development in the direction of exclusively self-realization.
In other words, a man should show not only masculine qualities, but also his feminine traits, and a woman - on the contrary. In a situation when these attributes are undeveloped, in the end it can lead to unilateral growth, the functioning of the individual.
"Self" as the main archetype of Jung
Within his concept, he is recognized as the most important. “Self” is the core of the personality, which is surrounded by other elements. When achieving the integration of all mental aspects, a person begins to feel an inner unity, integrity, harmony.
So, in the perception of Jung, the evolution of himself is the primary goal of human life.
The main symbol of "Self"
It is the Mandala (its many kinds): the halo of the saint, the abstract circle, the window-rosette, and so on. According to the concept of Jung, the unity of the “I”, integrity, expressed symbolically in the figurative completeness, similar to it, can be found in dreams, myths, fantasies, religious, mystical experience. This researcher believed that it is religion that acts as a great power that contributes to the human desire for fullness, integrity. However, one should not forget that the harmonization of all mental components is a complex process.
He considered it impossible to achieve true balance of all personal structures, if only in middle age. One can say more, the main archetype does not manifest itself until the connection, harmonization of all the mental aspects (conscious, unconscious) occurs. In view of this moment, the attainment of an already mature “I” requires perseverance, constancy, intellect, and essential life experience.
There is another interpretation of the concept under consideration. So, archetypes are emerging memories, ideas that predispose a person to experience, perceive, respond to various events in a specific way. Of course, in reality it is not quite so, if you specify, it is more correct to interpret them as predisposing factors that influence the manifestation by people of the behavior of universal models: perception, thinking, actions as an answer to the corresponding object (event).
It is the innate here that the trend of an emotional response, behavioral, cognitive to certain situations, for example, at the moment of an unexpected encounter with any subject (parents, stranger, snake, etc.).
The relationship of the prototype with feelings and thoughts
As mentioned earlier, archetypes are “initial images”. Jung argued that each of them is associated with a certain tendency to express specific types of feelings, thoughts about the corresponding situation, object. For example, a child perceives his mother through her real characteristics, colored by unconscious ideas about the data about the archetypal attributes of the mother: education, dependence, fertility.
Thus, if to summarize all the above, the following will turn out: the concept considered in this article has made an invaluable contribution to numerous areas, it is based on concepts such as archetype and symbol. Jung characterized the former as a prototype, and the latter as a means of its expression in human life.