Interpretation of the concept under consideration
Archetypes - this is translated from the Greek "priors". This term is widely used in the theoretical analysis of mythology. It was first introduced by the Swiss psychoanalyst Gustav Jung. In addition to psychology, he also studied the existing myths.
Jungu archetypes are primary schemes of different images that reproduce unconsciously and a priori form the activity of the imagination, as a result of which they are embodied, as a rule, in myths, beliefs, dreams, delusions of fantasy, works of literature, art.
Archetypal images, motifs are identical in nature (for example, the ubiquitous ancient myth that tells about the Flood) and are found in nowhere contiguous mythologies, art spheres, so that one can exclude the explanation of their appearance by borrowing.
But still archetypes are, first of all, not in themselves images, but only their schemes. In other words, psychological prerequisites, the possibility. The archetypes of Jung have a limited knowledge of an incomplete, but exclusive, formal characteristic.
The first characteristic is obtained only after penetrating the area of consciousness, filling with the material of experience. The form of the archetype Jung identifies with a certain system of axes of a certain crystal, transforming it to a certain extent in the mother liquor, despite the absence of its material being. In this connection, the process of myth creation is the transformation of the concept in question into an image. According to the researcher, these are involuntary statements about mental events that are unconscious.
Despite its formality, extreme generality, lack of content, a schematic image (archetype) has a property. Psychologists believe that, depending on the degree of their distinctness, emotional saturation, they can impress, enthrall, inspire in view of the fact that they strive for the usual beginnings within the framework of human nature. As a consequence, there arises the importance of the prototypes for creativity (artistic).
On the basis of Jung's statements, the secret of the influence of art is the artist's special ability to experience certain archetypal forms, and subsequently display them in works.
One of the best short formulations of the concept of the archetype belongs to Thomas Mann, according to which the typical is more of a mythical one, since the myth is a priori a model, so to speak, a primordial life form, a timeless scheme, a formula given by distant ancestors, and implicitly aimed to re-acquire the once-omened signs.
Heredity of archetypes
Jung assumed the inherent nature of the concepts in question throughout the family (humanity as a whole, its generality). In other words, the archetypes of the collective unconscious are inherited. The role of the container ("dimensions of the soul") for the prototypes, he "gave" directly to the deep unconscious, which transcends the boundaries of the personality.
This concept, in the process of studying myths, aims at searching among the ethnic, typological diversity of the relevant plots, the motives of the archetypal core (invariant), which they expressed (mythologems) through metaphors, but which can not be exhausted either by scientific explanation or poetic description.
Examples of archetypes
Yet Gustav wanted to outline the systematics of the concepts under consideration. For this he formulated, for example, such archetypes of the unconscious as "Shadow "(Prehuman unconscious component of the psyche, which Jung identified with the heroes of literary works: Goethe's Mephistopheles in Faust, Sturluson Loki in" The Younger Edda, "Hegni in the German epic poem" The Song of the Nibelungs "),Anima "(The human unconscious origin of the opposite sex, transmitted in the form of images of bisexual beings from primitive myths, the Chinese categories of Yin-Yang, etc.),"Wise old man "(The primordial spirit, the meaning hiding behind the life chaos and presented as a wise wizard, a shaman, Nietzsche's Zarathushtra). The mythology of the Great Mother was archetypally interpreted in various variations (the Goddess, the witch, the norm, Moira, Cybele, Demeter, the Virgin, etc.). All these examples reflect the prototype of the higher female essence, which embodies the sensation (psychological) of a change of generations, immortality, overcoming the so-called power of time.
The archetypal role of the images of Prometheus, Epimetheus Jung presents as an opposition in the psyche "Self "(The individual-personal principle), in particular its part, facing outward ("Person »).
The significance of the concept under consideration and the provisions of the doctrine of it
Both of them had a strong impact on the thoughts, creativity of the researchers of religion, myth (collaborated with Gustav Karl Kerenyi, Romanian mythologist Mircea Eliade, Indologist Heinrich Zimmer, Islamist Henri Corben, American mythologist Joseph Campbell, Hebraist Gershom Scholem), literary critics (Canadian mythologist Northrop Fry, the English mythologist Monty Bodkin), theologians, philosophers (German scholar Paul Tillich) and even non-human scientists (biologist Adolf Portman), prominent figures of art, literature (Hermann Hesse, Federico Fellini, Thomas Mann, Ing Mar Bergman).
Jung himself revealed the interdependence of archetypes acting as elements of psychostructures and mythological images that are products of primitive consciousness. He understood it first as an analogy, then as an identity, then as the generation of some by others. In connection with this, in already late literature, the term in question is used simply as the designation of general, fundamental, universal human motifs (mythological), the original schemata of representations that underlie any kind of structures (for example, the world tree) already without the necessary connection with the so-called Jungianism .
The main archetypes of Jung
The number of prototypes within the framework of the collective unconscious tends to infinity. But nevertheless a special place in his theoretical system is assigned: "Maske", "Anime" ("Animus"), "Self", "Shadows".
The mask "Mask"
This archetype, translated from Latin, means a mask - a public face of a person. In other words, how people manifest themselves within the framework of interpersonal relations. The mask symbolizes many roles played by a person in accordance with existing social requirements.
In Jung's perception, it serves the purpose: to make a special impression on other people or to hide from them their true inner essence. "Person" as an archetype is always necessary for a person in order, so to speak, to get along with others in the framework of everyday life. But Jung warned in his concepts of the implications of giving this archetype significance. In particular, a person becomes superficial, shallow, and he will be allocated only one single role, he will remain in alienation from the true colorful emotional experience.
The archetype "Shadow"
This is the opposite of the "Mask". "Shadow" is the dark, bad, animal side of the personality, suppressed in man. This archetype contains human socially unacceptable aggressive, sexual impulses, as well as immoral passions, thoughts. However, it has a number of positive features.
Jung regarded "Shadow" as a source of endless vitality, creativity, spontaneity in the fate of the individual. In accordance with the concept of this researcher, the main function of the ego is to correct the necessary direction of energy of the archetype in question, to curb the harmful side of human nature to a certain extent, allowing us to live in constant harmony with other people, and simultaneously open expression of our impulses, the possibility of enjoying health and creative life.
Original images of "Anima", "Animus"
In them, congenital androgenic human nature is concentrated, according to Jung. The first archetype identifies the inner female image in the man (the unconscious female side), and the second - the male principle in the female representative (the unconscious male side).
These archetypes of people are partly based on the existing biological fact: in the human body, both male and female hormones are produced. They evolved, according to Jung, for many centuries within the collective unconscious as a result of the experience of the process of interaction with the opposite sex. Some men are a little "feminized", and women are "chauvinized" because of long-term cohabitation. Karl argued that these archetypes, like the rest, should coexist harmoniously, that is, not to violate the overall balance, in order not to provoke the inhibition of the development of the individual in the direction of exclusively self-fulfillment.
In other words, a man should show not only masculine qualities, but also his feminine traits, and a woman - on the contrary. In a situation where these attributes are undeveloped, in the end it can lead to unilateral growth, the functioning of the individual.
"Self" as the main archetype of Jung
As part of his concept, he is recognized as the most important. "Self" - the core of the personality, which is surrounded by other elements. When you achieve the integration of all spiritual aspects, a person begins to feel the inner unity, integrity, harmony.
So, in the perception of Jung, the evolution of oneself is the primary goal of human life.
The main symbol of "Self"
They are "Mandala" (its many kinds): a saint's halo, an abstract circle, a rosette window and so on. According to Jung's concept, the unity of the Self, the wholeness, expressed symbolically in a figurative perfection, like it, can be found in dreams, myths, fantasies, religious, mystical experiences. This researcher believed that it is religion that is a great force that promotes the human desire for fullness, integrity. However, we should not forget that harmonization of all spiritual components is a complex process.
He considered it impossible to achieve the true balance of all personal structures, if only in middle age. We can say more, the main archetype does not manifest until a connection, harmonization of all mental aspects (conscious, unconscious) occurs. In view of this moment, the attainment of a mature "I" requires persistence, persistence, intellect, and substantial life experience.
The innate nature of the archetypes
There is one more interpretation of the concept under consideration. So, archetypes are the appeared memories, ideas predisposing a person to experience, perceive, react to different events in a specific way. Of course, in reality this is not quite so, if we clarify, then it is more correct to interpret them as predisposing factors that influence the appearance of universal models in the behavior of people: perception, thinking, acting as a response to the corresponding object (event).
It is the innate here directly the tendency of emotional reaction, behavioral, cognitive to certain situations, for example, at the moment of unexpected collision with any subject (parents, stranger, snake, etc.).
Interrelation of the prototypes with feelings and thoughts
As mentioned earlier, archetypes are "initial images". Jung asserted that each of them is associated with a certain tendency to express specific types of feelings, thoughts about the relevant situation, the object. For example, a child perceives his mother through her real characteristics, colored with unconscious notions about data on the archetypal attributes of the mother: upbringing, dependence, fertility.
Thus, if we summarize all of the above, we get the following: the concept considered in this article has made an invaluable contribution to numerous areas, it is based on such concepts as the archetype and the symbol. Jung described the former as an antecedent, and the second as a means of expressing it in human life.