The focus of this article will be the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Monumental sacred building attracts attention with its atypical, even with heterogeneity. Its dome, except the main, do not have gold. And outside the Cathedral looks like an Italian Palazzo of the Renaissance. But the outer aisles and gallery of the correlated Church with the ancient canons of architecture. But what about the inside? The interiors are as if imbued with the idea of autocracy, sung by the Russian Orthodox Church. And this is not surprising: after all, the temple was originally conceived as a Palace chapel, and even the burial vault of Moscow princes "male". Grand duchesses and tsarinas buried in the nearby Voznesensky Cathedral. After it blew up, the remains of the women moved to Arkhangelsk. Can I see it? No doubt. After all, since 1955, in the Archangel Cathedral is a Museum. And on the big religious holidays, the Church held services. Interesting detail: before each of them is the Cathedral consecrated anew. Let's go on a virtual tour of this temple. The pictures below will help you to get an idea about the fanciful architecture and beautiful rich decoration of this miracle of Italo-Russian architecture.
The Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin: history
Why is it so named? The Archangel Michael is considered the patron Saint of the Moscow princes in their military Affairs. The leader of the angels, who won the host of heaven Satan revered by them. Going on a hike, the Russian princes turned to him with a prayer for victory. That's why Cathedral of the Archangel just had to occur on Cathedral square of the Moscow Kremlin. And he appeared, not as we see it today. The first building was, as the Kremlin made of wood. Most likely, it was erected during the short reign of Prince Michael Khorobrit (1247-1248), brother of Alexander Nevsky. It was the second largest Church of the city. However, the first Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin were not intended for burials of princes. Sam Michael Khorobrit, who died in the war with the Lithuanians is buried in the Church of the Dormition in Vladimir. And only starting with the nephew of this Prince, Daniel, who inherited the throne, the rulers of Moscow are buried in the confines of the Cathedral. But soon, the wooden temple will be demolished and replaced the stone. And because of this the tomb in the first Church was not. The South wall was buried in Daniel, and in the temple – his son George.
The first stone Cathedral
In the 30 years of the fourteenth century, the Moscow Kremlin has already started to acquire the modern look. There was a stone cathedrals: assumption, the Saviour on the Bor and St. John Climacus. Grand Prince of Vladimir and Moscow Ivan Kalita completed the ensemble of the square. And helped him... the poor harvest of rye. When the cereal went everywhere in the growth and are not given grain, the Prince vowed that he would build a stone Church to replace the dilapidated wooden when his country will pass the hunger (and the associated rebellion). In pursuance of the oath he in 1333 this summer, as reported by the manuscript of the Church was erected. In September, he sprinkled the Metropolitan Feognost. This Moscow Archangel Cathedral of the time of Ivan Kalita was small. At the modest sizes indicate the tight timetable and the entry in Stepennaya kniga sixteenth century: compared to the "vatikim" temple, "the new was great." Most likely, it was a four-column single-domed Church, like the Savior on the Bor. Later it began to build chapels – most likely wooden. They were given the names consistent with the names of the sons of Kalita, who was buried in the Archangel Cathedral of St. Andrew of Crete and St. Simeon Stylites. A half-century, in 1471, the Church got two chapels: the Resurrection and Apostle Aquila. Can you see anything remaining from the Cathedral of the time of Ivan Kalita? Scientists are still arguing about it. Some believe that modern Arkhangelsk Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin architect of the sixteenth century was built from scratch. Others argue that the old building was not razed to the ground, and was included (in fragments) to the new one.
The era when it was built the present Cathedral of the Archangel in the Moscow Kremlin – sixteenth century, the beginning. Or rather, 1505-1508 years. In order to understand the idea of the Cathedral, you need to know his story. In the middle of the fifteenth century, in a building erected Kalita, was struck by lightning. The fire managed to be avoided, but the old temple was damaged from strong winds and storms. During the reign of Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow, it was decided to dismantle threatening to collapse the building and build in its place a new Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. The city of Moscow at that time flourished. Were built new churches, monasteries, were built bridges. The Kremlin took the form as we see it today. For such a Titanic work has been invited by the Italian master, which was considered at that time a consummate architects. The teeth of the Kremlin wall in the form of "swallow tails" are just an example of the Lombard architectural style. For the construction of the Archangel Cathedral was issued from Milan the master Aleviz Fryazin the New. The question may arise: why the Italian is such a Russian name? In fact, Fryazin is a nickname. So Russia called foreigners. In the early sixteenth century, they came a lot – on the conduct of the princes to build something but to paint... And here came a new Fryazin named Alviso. It was recorded in the current books.
The reconciliation of the Renaissance architecture with the Orthodox canon
New Aleviz Fryazin participated in the construction of the Moscow Kremlin. However, the construction of religious buildings – the case is more thin, then you need to stick to Canon. And at the same time, the Prince wanted his Palace and the temple was in "fashionable style". Ought to combine strict geometry of the Italian Renaissance with the traditional five domes, semicircular arches and round pillars painted, inherent in the old Russian religious architecture. Aleviz coped with this task. Like his compatriot Fioravanti, who worked on the Cathedral of the assumption, he preferred PathLabel the roof. In the layout the architect had used the cross-domed system and semicircular arches, which led to the fragmentation and uneven articulation. And that Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin teremnoy resembles the style of ancient temple buildings. According to Orthodox Canon, Aleviz built bunk porch. It is located in the Western part of the temple, near the chapel of the Holy Aquila. Women of the Royal family could observe the service, standing on a special gallery on the second floor. The rest of the temple is made in the spirit of the Italian Renaissance. This is reflected in the decoration of the walls white stone (the building brick), and multi-profile cornices, order pilasters with capitals decorated with plant ornamentation and Gables, decorated "sinks".
History of construction
The order about clearing space for the new Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin Ivan the Third emits 21 may 1505. By October, the old Church completely (according to other historians partially) dismantled. Grand Prince of Moscow and personally laid the first stone in the construction of a new Cathedral, but after a few days died. The throne was inherited by his son Vasily III. And the continuation of the work took place under his patronage. Four years after construction began the building was completed. It patapedia and four-pillar structure now has eight chapels, crowned by the five main domes. Originally they were covered with polished tiles, but never gold. And this was the cause. The Church was consecrated by Metropolitan Simon, the eighth of November, 1508.
It is difficult now to say exactly when Vasily the Third came up with the idea to convert to the tomb of the great Russian princes of the Arkhangelsk Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. The date of the order for the burial of ancestors in the walls of the new Church applies to the 1508 – time completion and consecration of the temple. We emphasize again that in the Archangel Cathedral was originally buried only the offspring of a male. Women kind of Queen or Princess had found solace under the shadow of the Church of the assumption of the virgin, in the Moscow Kremlin. Total necropolis was only in the twentieth century. When the Bolsheviks blew up the Cathedral of the ascension, the remains of the women of the Royal family was moved to Arkhangelsk. This explains the concept of internal painting. In the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, in the lower tier, we see portraits of the Russian princes. Is Vasily The Dark And Ivan Kalita, Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan III. Rather, it is cosmetic, since talking about portrait similarity is not necessary. Presented here and specific princes: Ivan and Andrei Staricka, Vladimir the Brave and his grandson Vasily Yaroslavovich, Simeon of Kaluga and Boris of Volotsk, Andrei of Uglich and others. At the top, the more respectable tier, you can see images of the rulers of Kievan Rus. The Central place is occupied by the portrait of Vasily the Third donor of the Cathedral.
Tombs of the Kings
Only in the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin fifty-four male burials. Tombstones 46 of them were replaced in the years 1636-37, and in 1903 they were covered with bronze under a glass dome. Until the capital was moved to Saint-Petersburg specially appointed bishops on the anniversary of the assumption made service. In the Cathedral are buried almost all the kings who lived before the mid-eighteenth century, from Kalita to Ivan, brother of Peter the great. Exceptions are few: it is Daniel, whose ashes in the Danilov monastery were not disturbed, Boris Godunov, whose bones thrown Dmitrii (later they were buried at the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. But here is the tomb of Peter II, grandson of the founder of St. Petersburg. His ashes was moved to the Cathedral of the Northern capital, because they were afraid of infection (young man died from smallpox at the age of 15 years in 1730). Ivan the terrible thought that he deserves a special place of burial. He with his two sons resting in diaconic the Archangel Cathedral in Moscow. By the way, his grave in 1963 was opened. M. M. Gerasimov studied the skull king and recreated his portrait. Long nose and round eyes Ivan the terrible inherited from my grandmother-a Greek woman, Sofia Paleolog. And the growth of the king was a meter and eighty centimeters. In his bones, and the remains of his wife Marfa Sobakina, they found a lot of mercury. Most likely, the Royal family systematically persecuted.
Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin: description
This temple is the complete opposite the next, assumption. In fact, the "filling" of the Renaissance, and the appearance is Russian. In the Archangel Cathedral the interior is fully responsible of the canonical Orthodox Church, while outside – especially on the West facade – the building looks like an Italian Palazzo of the Renaissance. However, several later additions have altered its appearance. In the second half of the sixteenth century, the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, the architecture of which, in General terms, remained unchanged, had two chapels: St. John the Baptist and St. Basil (later renamed St. Uaros). On three sides the Church was surrounded by an open gallery. In the eighteenth century it was removed, but altered Central Chapter. First it was the helmet, and became the onion. Classicism brought about changes: removed decorative Gables Fiala, they have acquired the arched form. Then same shot with black and red tiles from the domes. In the nineteenth century to the temple on the South side clung to a two-storey annexe for the priests.
Painting the Cathedral
Only half a century later, when Alexis (1565), and was covered with frescoes of the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. A description of some of them were given above. But besides the "portraits" of kings and paintings of religious content. First of all, the story of the struggle of Archangel Michael with Satan, which explains the name of the temple. But these ancient frescoes are preserved only in the tomb of Ivan the terrible. There you can see the picture on the gospel story about the rich man and Lazarus. In the middle of the seventeenth century these paintings were shot down. Parisam they updated the icon painters of the Armory. With the end of the XVI and XVII centuries, images of kings not fulfilled in the technique of fresco and tempera on boards or canvas. They have traced a resemblance to Feodor Ivanovich, his son Michael and grandson Alex (ruled from 1598 and 1682). The initial iconostasis has not survived. The one we see today was created in 1681.
Recent history of the cathedral
The building of the temple was destroyed and each time restored. During the Russian campaign of Napoleon in the Cathedral's altar was established a military kitchen. This affected the iconostasis. In 1813, had to replace the columns of the lower tier and the thread of the king's gate. In 1913, on the occasion of the celebration of the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty, in the Archangel Cathedral had a major reconstruction. At this time, over the tomb of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich was erected canopy with a massive candelabrum. During the October revolution, the Church was damaged by the shelling of the Kremlin. And the next year it closed at all. In 1929 the Moscow Cathedral of the Archangel did in the basement of the white stone tomb with the remains of women from the dynasties of Rurik and Romanov. In 1955 the temple was opened the Museum. Service in the Kremlin was banned until the fall of the Soviet Union. Now the Church was given to the Church.