One of the important organs in the human body is the thyroid gland. It produces hormones, without which people can not stay healthy. Therefore, the violation of the functions of this gland leads to quite serious consequences. For the timely detection of such a problem, an antibody test for TPO is used.
What is anti-tpo?
Under TPO it is necessary to understand the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which is produced only by the thyroid gland. It is one of the most important antigens in the human body. As a rule, doctors pay attention to it when it comes to dealing with developing endocrine and immune pathologies. The most sensitive medical test required for accurate diagnosis of endocrine diseases is the determination of the level of antibodies to TPO.
As endocrinologists are increasingly forced to accept patients, the anti-TPO test is also becoming more in demand. In most cases, the cause of thyroid dysfunction is associated with a disease such as autoimmune thyroiditis. And at risk are mostly children and women. Although men can also have anti-TPO elevated.
The essence of the analysis
Using a test such as antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, doctors establish an indicator of the aggression of the immune system in relation to the body itself. The main function of thyroid peroxidase is reduced to the formation of the active form of iodine and the influence on the process of thyroglobulin modification.
Aggressive effect of certain antibodies on the enzyme leads to its blocking. Therefore, the answer to the question: “Anti-TPO is enhanced, what does this mean?” - a simple conclusion would be: a violation of one of the functions of the thyroid gland occurs and the formation of the active form of iodine is significantly reduced, which is very important for the body to work.
However, this analysis indicates the fact of an autoimmune process in the thyroid gland and in most cases is evidence of the development of hypothyroidism.
Why does TVET go up?
In most cases, a high level of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase is detected in those who are ill with Hashimoto thyroiditis. In fact, we are talking about the autoimmune reaction of the body. The consequence of this process is the activation of antibodies that suppress the thyroid gland. This leads to the fact that this organ significantly increases in size and hypothyroidism develops. It is important to understand how relevant this analysis is, especially when anti-TPO is elevated. What this means will help to better understand photos and visible complications in people who have problems with the thyroid gland.
If you pay attention to the statistics, you can find out that women are exposed to this pathology several times more often than men, especially in old age. In 90% of patients with hypothyroidism, an increased level of anti-TPO is recorded.
Similar antibodies are also detected in Graves' disease. Autoimmune diseases that lead to a significant increase in thyroid hormones also include goiter, hyperthyroidism and exophthalmos.
Continuing to understand what increased anti-TPO means, it is worth noting the following fact: sometimes this indicator is revealed in cases of dysfunction of the thyroid gland after childbirth.
The first signs of pathology can be diagnosed in the first months after the birth of the baby. In this case, the symptoms have a rather vague nature: low concentration of attention, hair loss, dry skin, impaired memory and weakness. A similar condition is fixed on average in 6-10% of pregnant women.
Pathology in a pregnant woman
In that case, if the elevated level of anti-TPO was detected in a pregnant woman, it indicates a high risk of developing postpartum thyroiditis in the mother. Moreover, such disruption of the immune system can have a negative impact on the health of the baby.
The cause of this problem may be hypothyroidism, the essence of which is reduced to a lack of thyroid hormones. If such a disease is recorded in a child, then there is a risk of cretinism.
As for the signs of hypothyroidism, they include a decrease in mental and physical activity, a decrease in the regenerative properties of the skin and its dryness, memory impairment, a slowdown in reactions and a metabolic disorder.
For this reason, it is important to do an analysis of anti-TPO in women before pregnancy, even during planning. This will help avoid possible problems, and quite serious ones.
Initially, it is worth noting that such an analysis can be done by each person. Moreover, it is crucial to check the functioning of the thyroid gland, even if there are no symptoms. If we talk about such an analysis as anti-TPO, the norm in this case will look like this: 35 IU / ml. If the figure exceeds 35 units, then it makes sense to talk about the presence of an aggressive effect of antibodies on the thyroid gland. If, as a result of the test, the level of antibodies to TPO below 35 IU / ml was determined, then the condition of the person being diagnosed is within the normal range.
But in some cases, the excess of these units is not yet evidence of thyroid disease. Therefore, to obtain more accurate results, doctors conduct additional research.
Who needs to be tested for antibodies to TPO?
The fact that strictly individual processes can occur in the human body, causing unconventional reactions, has long been evident. For this reason, doctors conduct a diagnosis of the state of the thyroid gland in several stages. It is about identifying hypothyroidism, fixing changes in the thyroid gland using ultrasound and an increased level of antibodies to TPO.
In other words, a diagnosis such as autoimmune thyroiditis will not be confirmed if one of the indicators mentioned above is missing. Therefore, those patients who have been diagnosed with hypothyroidism should be tested for antibodies to TPO. At least it is in their interest. Passing this test is also shown to those taking the following medications: Interferon, Lithium, and Amiodarone. But you need to conduct a survey before taking these medications.
To pass the test costs and those who have been diagnosed with another autoimmune disease. For example, systemic angiitis, Libman-Sachs disease, rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Another indication for the study is the appointment of drug therapy, which can have a negative impact on thyroid function. It can be antiarrhythmic and psychotropic drugs based on lithium, immunomodulatory and antiviral drugs.
What does the analysis look like?
Research on the activity of antibodies to TPO is carried out without prior preparation. The patient immediately takes blood from a vein, because the test only needs serum.
At the same time, it is important to contact a reputable clinic initially, as decoding of indicators will require considerable knowledge and experience. Important is the modern equipment that will allow high-quality separation of blood serum from red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Also, before conducting a test, you should consult with your doctor, since information about any diseases can help in conducting a study.
The basis of treatment for such a problem as a violation of the functions of the thyroid gland is hormone therapy. As for the doses that are relevant to a particular patient, they are determined by the doctor. It is important to follow all the recommendations of physicians, since a malfunction of the thyroid gland is quite a serious disease, and if you do not stop its effects on the body, then more than unpleasant consequences are possible.
As you can see, the information on what anti-TPO means is quite relevant. The only obvious conclusion that can be made is the need to pass this test for everyone, even those who are feeling fine. This approach will help prevent the development of diseases that the patient does not even suspect.