In 1987, Soviet readers first became acquainted with the poem “Requiem” by A. Akhmatova.
For many lovers of lyric poems of the poetess, this work was a real discovery. In it, “a fragile ... and thin woman,” as B. Zaitsev called her in the 60s, issued a “cry — female, motherly”, which became the sentence of the terrible Stalinist regime. And decades after writing, you cannot read a poem without a shudder in your soul.
History of creation
The basis of the work was the personal tragedy of Anna Andreevna. Her son, Lev Gumilyov, was arrested three times: in 1935, 1938 (given 10 years, then reduced to 5 forced labor) and in 1949 (sentenced to death, then replaced by reference and later rehabilitated).
It was during the period from 1935 to 1940 that the main parts of the future poem were written. Akhmatova at first intended to create a lyrical cycle of poems, but later, already in the early 60s, when the first manuscript of works appeared, it was decided to combine them into one work. And indeed, throughout the text there is an immeasurable depth of grief for all Russian mothers, wives, brides who have experienced terrible spiritual anguish, not only during the years of Yezhovshchina, but throughout all times of human existence. This is shown by the analysis of “Requiem” by Akhmatova.
In the prose preface to the poem A. Akhmatova told about how she was “identified” (a sign of the times) in the prison line in front of the Crosses. Then one of the women, waking up from the stupor, in the ear - then everyone said so - asked: “Can you describe this?” The affirmative answer and the work created were the fulfillment of the great mission of a real poet - always and in everything tell people the truth.
The composition of the poem "Requiem" by Anna Akhmatova
Analysis of the work should begin with a reflection on its construction. The epigraph, dated 1961, and “Instead of the preface” (1957) testifies to the fact that thoughts of the experience did not leave the poetess until the end of life. The suffering of his son became her pain, which did not let go for a moment.
This is followed by "Initiation" (1940), "Introduction" and ten chapters of the main body (1935-40), three of which have the name: "Verdict", "To death", "Crucifixion". The poem ends with a two-part epilogue, which is largely epic in nature. The realities of the 30s, the massacre of the Decembrists, the streltsky executions that went down in history, and finally, the appeal to the Bible (the head of “Crucifixion”) and at all times the incomparable sufferings of a woman are what Anna Akhmatova writes about
“Requiem” - name analysis
A requiem Mass, an appeal to higher powers asking for grace for the deceased ... The great work of V. Mozart is one of the favorite music works of the poetess ... Such associations are caused in the human mind by the name of the poem “Requiem” by Anna Akhmatova. An analysis of the text leads to the conclusion that it is grief, commemoration and sadness for all those “crucified” during the years of repression: thousands of the dead, as well as those who have “died” from their sufferings and agonizing feelings for their loved ones, the soul turned to stone.
"Dedication" and "Introduction"
The beginning of the poem introduces the reader into the atmosphere of “rabid years”, when the great grief, in front of which “mountains bend, the great river does not flow” (hyperboles emphasize its scale) entered almost every house. Appears accentuating the universal pain of the pronoun “we” - “involuntary girlfriends” standing at the “Crosses” while awaiting the verdict.
Analysis of the poem "Requiem" Akhmatova draws attention to an unusual approach to the image of the beloved city. In the Introduction, the bloody and black Petersburg appears to the exhausted woman only as an “unnecessary attachment” to prisons scattered throughout the country. Ordinary, as scary as it may seem, were the “death stars” and the harbingers of misfortunes, the “black marosi”, driving around the streets.
The development of the main theme in the main part
The poem continues the description of the scene of the arrest of his son. There is no coincidence here with the popular crying, the form of which Akhmatova uses. “Requiem” - an analysis of the poem confirms this - develops the image of a suffering mother. A dark room, a guttering candle, "mortal sweat on the brow" and a terrible phrase: "after you, as if carried away, it was coming." Left alone, the lyrical heroine is fully aware of the horror of what happened. External calmness is replaced by delusions (part 2), manifested in confused, unsaid words, the memory of the former happy life of a cheerful "mocker". And then - an endless line under the Cross and 17 months of painful waiting for a sentence. For all relatives of the repressed, he became a special facet: before - hope still lingers, after - the end of all life ...
Analysis of the poem “Requiem” by Anna Akhmatova shows how the personal experiences of the heroine are increasingly acquiring the universal scale of human grief and incredible resilience.
The culmination of the work
In the chapters "Verdict", "To death", "Crucifixion" the emotional state of the mother reaches its apogee.
What awaits her? Death, when neither the projectile, nor the typhoid child, nor even the “top of the blue cap” any longer? For the heroine, who lost the meaning of life, it will be salvation. Or madness and petrified soul, allowing you to forget about everything? It is impossible to put into words what a person feels at such a moment: “... it is someone else who suffers. I would not be able to ... ".
The central place in the poem is occupied by the chapter “Crucifixion”. This is the biblical story of the crucifixion of Christ, which Akhmatova rethought. “Requiem” - an analysis of the condition of a woman who has lost her child forever. This is the moment when “the heavens melted in fire” is a sign of a catastrophe of universal proportions. The phrase is filled with deep meaning: “And there, where Mother stood silently, So no one dared to look.” And the words of Christ, trying to console the closest person: "Do not cry, Mate ...". “Crucifixion” sounds like a sentence to any inhuman regime that condemns a mother to unbearable suffering.
Analysis of the work of Akhmatova "Requiem" completes the definition of the ideological content of the final part.
The second part of "Epilogue" echoes Pushkin's famous poem "I have erected a monument to myself ...". The theme in Russian poetry is not new - this is the definition of a poet of his destination on Earth and a certain summing up of creative results. Anna Andreyevna’s desire is for a monument erected in her honor to stand not on the seashore where she was born, and not in the garden of Tsarskoe Selo, but at the walls of the Crosses. It was here that she spent the most terrible days of her life. Just like thousands of other people of a whole generation.
The value of the poem "Requiem"
“These are 14 prayers,” A. Akhmatova said of her work in 1962. Requiem - analysis confirms this idea - not only for the son, but for all innocently destroyed, physically or spiritually, citizens of a large country - this is how the reader perceives the poem. This is a monument to the suffering of the mother's heart. And a terrible accusation thrown at the totalitarian system created by Usach (the definition of a poetess). The duty of future generations is to never forget this.