In 1987, the Soviet reader first became acquainted with A. Akhmatova's poem "Requiem".
For many lovers of poetry poems poetry this work was a real discovery. In it, "fragile ... and a thin woman" - as B. Zaitsev called it in the 1960s - issued a "cry - female, motherly", which became a verdict to the terrible Stalinist regime. And decades after writing, you can not read a poem without a shudder in your soul.
History of creation
The basis of the work was the personal tragedy of Anna Andreevna. Her son, Lev Gumilev, was arrested three times: in 1935, 1938 (given 10 years, then reduced to 5 correctional labor) and in 1949 (sentenced to death, then replaced by exile and later rehabilitated).
It was during the period from 1935 to 1940 that the main parts of the future poem were written. Akhmatova initially intended to create a lyrical cycle of poems, but later, at the beginning of the sixties, when the first manuscript of the works appeared, a decision was made to combine them into one work. And indeed, throughout the whole text, the immeasurable depth of grief of all Russian mothers, wives, and brides has been traced, not only during the "Yezhovshchina" years, but also during all times of the existence of mankind. This is shown by the analysis of Akhmatova's Requiem by chapters.
In the prosaic preface to the poem, A. Akhmatova described how she was "identified" (a sign of time) in the prison queue before the Crosses. Then one of the women, awakened from stupor, in her ear - then everyone said so - asked: "And this you can describe?" The affirmative answer and the created work became the fulfillment of the great mission of this poet - always and in everything to tell people the truth.
Composition of the poem "Requiem" by Anna Akhmatova
Analysis of the work should begin with an understanding of its construction. The epigraph, dated 1961, and "Instead of the Preface" (1957) indicate that the thoughts of the experience did not leave the poetess until the end of his life. The suffering of her son and her pain, which did not let go for a moment.
This is followed by "Dedication" (1940), "Introduction" and ten chapters of the main part (1935-40), three of which have the title: "The verdict", "To death", "Crucifixion". The two-part epilogue, which is more epic in nature, completes the poem. The realities of the 1930s, the massacre of the Decembrists, the streltsian executions that have become history, finally the appeal to the Bible (the chapter "The Crucifixion") and at all times the incomparable sufferings of a woman - what Anna Akhmatova writes about
"Requiem" - title analysis
A funeral Mass, an appeal to the higher powers with a request for grace for the deceased ... The great work of W. Mozart is one of the favorite musical works of the poetess ... Such associations cause in the mind of man the title of the poem "Requiem" of Anna Akhmatova. Analysis of the text leads to the conclusion that this is grief, commemoration, sadness for all the "crucified" in the years of repression: thousands of deaths, as well as those who suffered from the suffering and painful experiences for their relatives "died", the soul petrified.
"Dedication" and "Introduction"
The beginning of the poem introduces the reader into the atmosphere of "spoiled years", when a great mountain, before which "the mountains bend, the great river does not flow" (hyperboles emphasize its scale), it entered almost every house. There is an accent on the general pain of the pronoun "we" - "unwitting friends" who stood at the Crosses in anticipation of the verdict.
Analysis of the poem "Requiem" by Akhmatova draws attention to the unusual approach in depicting a beloved city. In the "Introduction" bloody and black Petersburg appears to the exhausted woman only "an unnecessary pendant" to the prisons scattered all over the country. The usual thing, however terrible, was the "stars of death" and the harbingers of the woes "black marusi", driving around the streets.
Development of the main topic in the main part
The poem continues the description of the scene of his son's arrest. It is not accidental here that a roll call with people's lamentations, the form of which Akhmatova uses. "Requiem" - the analysis of the poem confirms this - develops the image of the suffering mother. The dark room, the fading candle, the "death sweat on his forehead," and the terrible phrase: "for you, as if carrying out, it was going on." Left alone, the lyrical heroine is fully aware of the horror of what happened. External calm is replaced by delirium (part 2), manifested in inconsistent, unsaid words, a memory of the happy life of a happy "mocker". And then - an endless queue under the Crosses and 17 months of painful waiting for the verdict. For all relatives of the repressed, he became a special facet: before - still there is hope, after - the end of all life ...
Analysis of the poem "Requiem" by Anna Akhmatova shows how the personal experiences of the heroine are increasingly acquiring the universal scale of human grief and incredible resilience.
The culmination of the work
In the chapters "Sentence", "To death", "Crucifixion" the emotional state of the mother reaches its apogee.
What awaits her? Death, when no longer a shell, no typhoid child, or even a "blue cap top"? For a heroine who has lost the meaning of life, she will become a salvation. Or madness and petrified soul, allowing to forget about everything? It is impossible to convey in words what a person feels at such a moment: "... this is someone else suffering. I could not ... ".
The central place in the poem is the head of the Crucifixion. This is the biblical story of the crucifixion of Christ, which Akhmatova rethought. "Requiem" is an analysis of the condition of a woman who has lost her child forever. This is the moment when "the heavens melt in the fire" - a sign of a catastrophe of universal scale. Deep meaning is filled with the phrase: "And where the Mother stood silently, So no one looked and dared." And the words of Christ, trying to comfort the closest person: "Do not cry, Mathi ...". As a sentence to any inhuman regime, condemning the mother to unbearable suffering, "Crucifixion" sounds.
The analysis of Akhmatova's work "Requiem" completes the definition of the ideological content of the final part of it.
The second part of the "Epilogue" echoes with the famous poem by A. Pushkin "I erected a monument to myself ...". The theme in Russian poetry is not new - it is the poet's definition of his appointment on Earth and a certain sum of creative results. Anna Andreevna's desire - that the monument erected in her honor, was not on the beach where she was born, and not in the garden of Tsarskoe Selo, but at the walls of the Crosses. It was here that she spent the most terrible days of her life. Just like thousands of other people of the whole generation.
The meaning of the poem "Requiem"
"These are 14 prayers," said A. Akhmatova about her work in 1962. Requiem - analysis confirms this idea - not only for the son, but for all innocently destroyed, physically or spiritually, citizens of a large country - this is how the reader perceives the poem. This is a monument to the suffering of the mother's heart. And a terrible accusation, thrown at the totalitarian system created by the "Mustache" (the definition of the poetess). It is the duty of future generations to never forget this.