To determine the state of internal organs, doctors often prescribe various examinations. One of the frequent studies is urinalysis. This examination involves the delivery of biomaterial to determine the functioning of the kidneys, the presence of a norm of trace elements in the body, and so on.
Urinalysis according to Sulkovich
This study is necessary to determine the amount of calcium that is excreted in the urine. The urine analysis according to Sulkovich is not as common and often prescribed as a general, but in some cases it cannot be avoided. Most often it is used in pediatrics, but also used in oncology, nephrology, gastroenterology, endocrinology.
What is this study assigned to?
Children are often prescribed a urine analysis according to Sulkovich to control the intake of vitamin D, which is used for the treatment and prevention of rickets. The body of the child is still imperfect and can not perform many functions at the proper level. This also applies to the synthesis of vitamin D, which is not produced in children in the required amount.
When hypovitaminosis D and rickets occurs. The bones in this pathology are experiencing an acute shortage of building material - calcium. The legs of the child are bent, the skull and chest are deformed. Vitamin D administration can prevent or mitigate these defects. But it cannot be taken uncontrollably, since an increase in its concentration in the body is no less dangerous than a deficiency.
Vitamin D hypervitaminosis can trigger seizures. An excess of calcium can be deposited in the bone tissue, which leads to a delay in its growth. That is why it is necessary to keep its amount under control. Helps to carry out this control urine analysis according to Sulkovich.
What needs to be remembered when collecting urine for research? To control the dose of vitamin D using a urine analysis according to Sulkovich. How to collect it, you need to advise patients or their parents. In case of improper preparation for the study, the result can be false positive. It is necessary for three days to exclude from the diet, milk and dairy products, confectionery, mineral water, coffee.
Collect urine in the morning, before collecting it is necessary to hold the toilet of the genitals with warm water and soap. If the analysis is carried out by a child, then only morning urine should be taken. The test can be considered to be correctly conducted only if fresh urine was tested or that which was checked no later than two hours after collection. The first portion is released, and the residue is collected in a special container or a clean jar. Before the analysis of the child can not be fed, the biomaterial must be collected on an empty stomach.
If the test is carried out in an adult, the analysis that was collected during the day is more effective. On how to pass a urine analysis according to Sulkovich, it depends on how accurate the test result will be.
What can be determined using this analysis?
Excess calcium in the body allows you to determine urine analysis according to Sulkovich, the decoding of which is quite simple. Excessive presence of calcium in the urine indicates its excess in the body. If a child takes vitamin D, then the dose should be reduced. In parallel with this study, the determination of serum Ca level is carried out. According to these analyzes, adjust the dose of the drug. If vitamin D was not prescribed, then one may suspect simply its insufficient digestibility or its excessive elimination by urine. If the analysis is negative in an adult, then this may be a sign of hypoparathyroidism.
An adult study is conducted when a thyroid gland is suspected, as well as if sarcoidosis is suspected. The results of urine analysis according to Sulkovich are of great importance in oncology, since many malignant tumors can produce calcium.
The rate of urine according to Sulkovich in children
Evaluate the result of the degree of turbidity in the presence of oxalic acid. The result may be negative: urine is completely clear when the reagent is added. A positive result may be weakly positive, positive and sharply positive. It is determined by the degree of turbidity, which is evaluated on a scale. If the answer is no, then calcium is not enough in the human body. If a patient has a positive urine analysis according to Sulkovich, the norm in children of which is “+” or “++”, then this trace element in the body is either normal or excessive. If the test gave a sharply positive result, that is, “+++” or “++++”, then the patient needs further further investigation and appropriate treatment or adjustment of the element doses.
What could be the results of the analysis?
The result of the study can be from "-" (negative) to "++++" (sharply positive). When oxalic acid is added to the urine, a precipitate is deposited, which is visually compared with the proposed scale. The urine analysis according to Sulkovich, the rate of which can change when taking vitamin D and calcium preparations in children and adults, is a very revealing test, provided that the biological material is properly collected and that all the rules for preparing it are complied with. The result, in which there are three or four pluses, may indicate a serious pathology in the body or an incorrectly chosen dose of drugs.
What does a negative result mean?
Does the analysis of urine according to Sulkovich help to determine the presence of rickets? A negative result in this analysis indicates an insufficient amount of calcium in the urine. Doctors at the same time can safely say that he is not there at all. In this case, the child may develop rickets or hypoparathyroidism. This result directly shows a lack of vitamin D in children.
What is dangerous rickets? The appearance of a child changes, its ribs go out a bit (the soft part of the last ribs, which normally should be slightly concave inward). The bone structure of the skull and legs may change. With the development of this pathology, the bones soften, so this can not affect the entire skeleton of the child. With this result of the examination according to Sulkovich, you should immediately contact a specialist to get the necessary treatment recommendations. Most often this is the body's filling with vitamin D and calcium. But the level of this trace element must be constantly monitored so that its excess does not occur. Replenishing the child's body with calcium and vitamin D is possible not only with the help of medications, such children are shown a special diet and frequent exposure to fresh air with ultraviolet solar radiation.
If you suspect hypoparathyroidism, an additional examination is scheduled by taking a blood test for hypocalcemia.
The result is a few pluses
We have already reviewed the rate of the results of this analysis. But what if there are three or four pluses in the survey response?
Such a result also does not promise excellent well-being of the child. After all, a high content of calcium in the blood slows its growth, disrupts the metabolism and the normal functioning of the body. If a child has a high calcium content, you need to know the cause. Urinalysis according to Sulkovich helps to find out the level of this trace element in order to correct its quantity in the body. If a child takes the wrong dose of vitamin D, which entails an excess of calcium, then it should be abolished. For this reason, it is important to comply with all the conditions for collecting the biomaterial so that the results of the analysis are as accurate as possible. After all, sediment can form not only because of calcium, but also because of non-compliance with the rules of hygiene during urine collection.
In the case of a pathological result, massage, conifers and salt baths, electrophoresis are prescribed.