The term "allegory" comes from the Greek word for "allegory." This concept is an expression of abstract, abstract content of thought (judgment, concept) with the help of a specific image. That's what allegory is. An example is the image of death as a skeleton with a scythe, and also justice in the form of a woman whose eyes are tied, in one hand are scales, and in the other - a sword.
In allegory, thus, a concrete image acquires an abstract meaning. It is generalized. The concept is contemplated through this image. This element of abstract content, which makes a particular image official in relation to the judgment or concept behind it, is its characteristic feature in the allegory. This value in itself is not an artistic element, and the fact that it is in some way always present in allegory, in the eyes of many, casts doubt on the latter's belonging to artistic devices.
The double nature of allegory
In fact, having a dual nature - the logical conjunction (the connection of the image with a concrete concept) and the poetic correlation of the resulting concrete expression to an allegory in its pure form should be classified as a category of so-called applied poetry. But this does not mean, however, that an allegorical image in itself can not be artistic. Everything depends on the degree of emphasis of its connection with the expressed object, on the measure of its independence. The more the allegorical meaning is emphasized, the more accurate is the correspondence between the expressed idea and the image, the more the image abstraction colorizes, belittling its artistic value and independence. In such cases, the concrete expression is directed towards the idea, that is, the image has some tendency.
This is particularly evident in various didactic poetic genres, which use such a tool as an allegory. Examples: a fable, a parable. They are usually built entirely on this reception. This is also characteristic of other allegorical works, the basis of which is the intention to illustrate or explain to the concrete something abstract.
Emotional coloring of abstract thoughts when using allegory
Where can an allegory be used?
This tool is very common in various areas of art. Allegory, the examples of which we have resulted, as the allegory has the closest connection with the metaphor, is often considered as a widespread, developed metaphor or as a whole series of images that are united into a single closed whole. It is practicable not only in poetry, but also in various plastic arts. Such as sculpture or the allegory in painting, examples of which are "Charity" by Charles Lebrun, "The Allegory of Painting" by Jan Vermeer.
Allegory in the literature
It is widely distributed for the depiction of artistic reality, it is used traditionally both in book literature and in folklore. The dictionary of literary terms defines this medium as an image through a concrete image of an abstract concept.
Allegory examples in literature which will be discussed below, is often used in fables and fairy tales. Under the form of animals can refer to various human vices. Can allegorically portrayed important political and historical events.
"The Wolf and the Lamb"
"The Bear in the Voivodeship"
In the image of the Bear, Krylov also deduces various superiors. For example, in the fable called "Bear beside bees," a state embezzler who was admitted to state good is depicted. In his den Mishka dragged all the honey. The bear is represented here as an "old rogue", an unscrupulous thief.
Works depicting the helplessness of the Lord
Identified in these fantastic situations, the helplessness of the landowners represented. They are unable to survive without using the labor of the peasants. Without muzhitskogo supervision in everyday life, the landlords are doomed to be wild. Absolutely deprived of all their skills for centuries, in which serfdom existed. These gentlemen are able only to "eat", "in the bullet" to play, and abuse the "rough" muzhiks.
"The Wolf on the Kennels"
At Krylov we can also find a lot of actual fables. His works are almost all written as a response to a public event in the field of art or politics. For example, everyone knows that the fable "The Wolf on the Kennels" depicts allegorically the events of 1812, the Patriotic War, or rather, Napoleon's attempt to begin peace negotiations with Russia. It is meant by the wolf Bonaparte, and M.I. Kutuzov is depicted as a gray hunter. Once in Russia (on the kennels), the Wolf himself does not feel happy about it. The kennel became hell for him. This hero decides to enter into negotiations, but the hunter for clever tricks does not lend.