Although Russia recognized Pushkin as the greatest Russian poet, it did not lift him to the world level, she did not win a place near Homer, Shakespeare, Dante and Goethe.
The life and death of the poet - the most woeful tragedy in the entire history of Russia.
The circumstances preceding the writing of the poem
The poem "Prisoner" Pushkin wrote, being in Chisinau exile. An important role was played by the life circumstances in which the poet found himself.
1820 Collegiate secretary A.S. Pushkin, by the need of the service, was sent to the Southern Territory of Russia - so in the roadmap issued to the poet, the purpose of his trip was indicated, which in fact was a reference. The Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, service in the College of Foreign Affairs and noisy Petersburg with numerous friends remained behind. At the new site, Alexander Pushkin serves as a minor office clerk and performs monotonous routine work that depresses even an ordinary person, not to mention such an outstanding creative personality, which was a brilliant poet.
General Ivan Nikitich Inzov, his immediate superior, understood this and tried not to load the poet with much work. He treats him very favorably. Pushkin was accepted in the aristocratic circles of Chisinau. Sometimes Alexander Sergeevich allowed himself to publicly criticize the actions of the government and the military, but Inzov, on duty, had to report on his subordinates, in reports to Petersburg pointed out that Pushkin’s statements were imitative and not his way of thinking. Whether such a report was the result of recognizing talent and sympathy for A. S. Pushknu, or did Inzov really think so, will remain a mystery for posterity.
Political views of the poet
From the textbook of Russian literature, which analyzes the poem "Prisoner" Pushkin, we learn that it is the embodiment of the great poet's love of freedom, imbued with the ideas of the Decembrists. Alexander Sergeevich is prescribed rebellious and terrorist thoughts, which he began to defend with all his heart and, through allegorical images, tried to convey to the people. Pushkin is presented to schoolchildren in the form of a secret revolutionary and a political sufferer.
However, deeper studies of Pushkin scholars show that the poet’s passion for politics was superficial. Moreover, over time, he sincerely repented of his views and considered them a delusion of youth.
Prisoner of Circumstances
Certainly, only a master of words like Pushkin could give a versatility and contradiction to a poem in terms of interpretation. "Prisoner" could be written by a young poet and under the influence of life circumstances. On the way to the place of exile in Chisinau, Alexander Sergeevich lived for 3 weeks with his acquaintances - in the Raevsky family, who settled on the southern coast of the Crimea.
This period of life is portrayed in the poet's memory as the happiest days when he could fully enjoy the beauty of the Crimean landscape and a pleasant communication with like-minded people and friends. Chisinau after the Crimea seemed to Pushkin dull and unattractive – it began to surround the sun-scorched steppe, and instead of friends, had to communicate with arrogant and conceited Moldovan aristocrats. Pushkin, prisoner of the circumstances in which he had to be. It really felt like a prisoner. The feeling of loneliness, monotony and lack of freedom, dependence on superiors, lack of friends – all endured difficult freedom-loving Pushkin. The prisoner – theme, inspired by the life of a 23 year old young man.
The desire to escape from reality
There is another version of what prompted A.S. Pushkin to write this poem. Being in exile, Pushkin had the opportunity to communicate with prisoners and became close with one of the convicts, who told him about his intentions to make an escape. Pushkin was deeply touched by this idea, and he clothed some of the convict in verse. In The Prisoner, he in a metaphorical and romantic form displayed his desire to run away from reality.
Analysis of the poem "The Prisoner" by Pushkin
The work can be divided into two parts, differing from each other in mood and intonation. The first part, where everything is gloomy and sad, is opposed to the second - full of light and hope. From the depressing prison prison, the lyrical hero mentally wants to get into the vast space of the universe. The thought of ending the dark period instills new vitality into it.
The sad story about life in captivity in the middle of a poem develops into a cry of the soul demanding freedom, reaches its emotional peak and ends again with words of loneliness - “only the wind ... yes I am. "
It should be noted that the poem is metaphorical, that is, the main idea in it is veiled and communicated to the reader by means of a figurative comparison. Each person, by virtue of his developed imagination, can guess what Pushkin didn’t say. The prisoner is the lyric hero of the work, sitting in a “crude dungeon.” The poet likens him to a young eagle who is fed up in captivity. Thanks to this comparison, it becomes clear how alien to the lyrical hero is the world around. For a person, restrictions on freedom and imposed conditions of existence, be it a reference or prison bars, are as destructive and unnatural as bondage for a freedom-loving eagle.
The poem "The Prisoner" Pushkin pierced the idea of freedom, without ever using the very word "freedom." It is heard in the cry of an eagle, endowed by the poet with the ability to think like a human being and to experience the feelings inherent in man. “Let's fly away,” a proud bird wants to say, calling the prisoner with him “to where only the wind is walking ... yes I am. "
The main thing is not to be a prisoner and get the freedom that goes without saying for all living things.
Pushkin's attitude to his works
The response to Pushkin's poem The Prisoner does not bother the poet much. According to the people who knew him well, Alexander Sergeevich was always dissatisfied with the written works. Once in a conversation with Alexandra Osipovna Smirnova-Rosset Pushkin admitted that the most beautiful poems to him are in a dream, but he does not have time to remember them.
The poet is very carefully selected every word, working his work as a cutter, carefully grinding the faces of precious stones. But when he brought it to perfection, cared little about how to appreciate his work. In addition, according to the memoirs of the same Smirnova-Rosset, Pushkin absolutely couldn't read his writing. In his performance to appreciate the beauty of the verse was possible. It seemed that his work had him pretty bored.
Such was Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin in the eyes of his contemporaries - a prisoner of fate and circumstances.
Only twelve lines, and how much sense, feeling and understatement are invested in them ...