Progress is constantly moving and daily presents to its consumers a new, more sophisticated product that improves a person’s standard of living. Innovative technologies have also not bypassed the lightning protection system, offering an improved version of the one that was released earlier.
What is it designed for?
Lightning is the strongest electrical discharge that is formed between the earth and clouds due to different potentials of the atmospheric and terrestrial balance. Such a blow brings a considerable threat and rather badly damages structures. In the 18th century, scientists presented a device that helps preserve property and life, which remains relevant today.
Active lightning protection is invented for comfort and safety. A properly installed device will perfectly help to save not only the house, but also all electronic helpers.
This design is a series of measures and technical measures provided to ensure the reliability of all buildings and the life of people who are there at the discharge.
Principle of operation
Any active lightning protection system is assembled according to one scheme, the main elements of which are:
- current leads - they are used to output the current from the receiver directly to the grounding circuit;
- interception rod - this device takes on a spontaneous discharge;
- the grounding circuit is a structure buried in the ground; through it, the energy is sent to the ground without harm to others.
All of the above components are made of metal and are joined together by welding. For receivers, it is preferable to use rods, current leads are made from wire, and the contour is made from strips and pins.
During a thunderstorm, a strong electric field is formed above the ground, and active lightning protection combats with it. The principle of operation of the device consists in the concentration of a strong tension on the tips, as a result of which a so-called corona discharge emerges. Thanks to such a system, induced discharges are not created on a protected building; as a result, no impact occurs. If such a natural phenomenon does manifest itself, which happens extremely rarely, then all the accumulated energy will be directed through the metal pin into the ground along the branches.
Active lightning protection
Such devices appeared not so long ago, but they are already used almost everywhere. The main difference between these devices from all the others is the use of the principle of electromagnetic induction in a more complicated version.
Instead of a simple cable or pin, a module is assembled, which consists of a discharger, an individual coil and a capacitor. This device got its name due to the fact that it independently during a thunderstorm acts on the electric field, which is formed around it. As a result, the discharge in the most diverse circumstances will hit the catcher itself and go to the ground.
There are certain advantages due to which active lightning protection is very popular in the modern market.
- Such a receiver can cover a significant area, unlike all predecessors that are already outdated, while protecting an area of up to thirty-six thousand square meters.
- Ease of operation and installation.
- Thanks to its neat appearance, the system fits perfectly into the overall style and architecture of buildings.
- Long and reliable service life.
- Unpretentiousness in care and maintenance.
Passive lightning protection
This complex is considered to be a classic one, which uses metal elements as a receiver, such as a cable, pins, a grid, and wires. The most commonly used combination of these elements. Initially, the protection is set on protrusions and corners, and if the area is flat, then a metal grid is laid out. It should also be noted that in such a system it is necessary to pay special attention to the norms and standards. For example, if you install only one receiver on the chimney, it will save nothing more. Therefore, you will need to adhere to the minima that are set in the documentation.
The main differences between active and passive protection
In order to mount passive protection, you need a lot more materials than with active. In particular, it will be felt by those who have different roof geometries. For the latter, the structure of the house does not matter, the calculation is very easy and simple.
There is also a significant difference in price ranges. It is very important to understand which device is suitable for a particular area. Passive will be an excellent option to protect a small house in the country or in the village. Active protection is mounted on houses of sufficiently large size, with extensions and roofs of various geometries. Of course, it is also possible to install the first system, but this will require much more materials and money. At the same time, the efficiency will be much lower. Despite all the differences, active and passive lightning protection has the right to life, and only the user chooses for himself the best.
Installation of such elements on the roofs is carried out in accordance with the norms of the “Instructions for the installation of lightning protection of buildings, structures and industrial communications”, which was approved by the Ministry of Energy of Russia on 06/30/2003. Order No. 260.
The main complex of means includes devices for protection from direct lightning strikes (external) and its secondary impact (internal). The choice of the required type and distribution of components is made by special companies, carrying out a project of active lightning protection on a computer. Dwg format is great for saving all the necessary data. When installing new equipment, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the documentation, since in it the employees of the companies have calculated all the parameters and necessary measurements, thanks to which it is possible to reliably preserve residential complexes.
Such an active lightning protection is one of the leaders, deserving a quality assessment from users, has a number of main advantages, which include:
- Greater efficiency. All objects covered by the so-called capsule, including the decorative elements of the roof and television antennas, are under protection. The presence of a short path of current flow between the ground and the head of the lightning conductor minimizes the risk of fire that occurs quite often during atmospheric discharge into the roof of the building and the induction of serious voltage in the conductor of metal pipes, which can lead to people being injured, as well as an explosion of gas coming out of the pipes.
- Simplicity and cost of installation. Active lightning protection “Gromostar” has a wide range of coverage. Most often, it will be sufficient to properly mount the tap head on the mast, which can immediately serve as an antenna. If there is also a security zone on the freestanding mast, it most often fills up to several objects simultaneously. Therefore, to save money with such a device can be approximately doubled.
Active lightning "Forend" is based on the application of the potential difference, which are formed between the surface of the earth and a thundercloud. At that moment, when the electric field reaches a critical value, an advanced emission directed towards the discharge begins to emit from the receiver. And in the event of a natural phenomenon over the territory with protection, it will be necessarily caught by the receiver and transferred to the ground. Thus, reliable protection of all objects and structures occurs. This feature can be attributed to the main advantages of the device.
The radius of protection of the device reaches 107 m, thereby exceeding the coverage of all other types of receivers. This is all achieved through the use of a precautionary discharge feature.
The protection zone of such equipment has a very good coverage area and allows you to close up to 36 thousand square meters. m, and with more accurate reliability up to 107 m. If it is necessary to more clearly shield the structures, then you can simultaneously use several devices together with the components attached to them by grounding.
Active lightning Forend has another important advantage, namely cost. It is an alternative to the use of devices for the protection of large premises without the introduction of the protective mesh method.
In the case of the use of a passive system, there will be a need to lay down a large amount of metal with certain slopes and earthing, which ultimately slightly reduces the reliability of the whole structure. Moreover, the use of such a device does not exclude the possibility of its rupture, as a result of which the protection circuit is completely broken.
And the Forend system has weather protection and is considered very easy to install. Grounding is easy to manufacture and does not need to dig trenches around the perimeter of the entire building, to lay out the down-conductors, which, in turn, is mandatory if passive devices are used.
The reliability of the devices of this company is confirmed by the test certificates of the VET laboratory (Germany) and at the Romanian National Research Institute. Also approved for use by the Federal Service for Technological, Environmental and Atomic Supervision “Rostekhnadzor”.