Aggression and, accordingly, aggressive behavior, humanity has been studying for a long time. But still in this topic there are still many unsolved questions. That is why in this article aggressive behavior will be considered in maximum detail: the causes of its occurrence, various forms, as well as methods of adjustment.
What it is?
Initially, we must determine the terms that will be widely used in this article.
Aggression. There are quite a few explanations for this concept. And all of them are somehow different. However, initially it should be noted that the term “aggression” from the Latin language is translated as “attack”.
- According to Arnold Bass (a well-known psychologist), aggression is any human behavior that can harm other people.
- Zilman argues that aggression is an attempt by a person to inflict different kinds of bodily and physical injuries on other people.
- Other scientists say that aggression is justified only if there is a desire to hurt or harm a person (and not just the final result).
What is aggressive behavior? This is about the same as the aggression itself. That is, it is a certain set of actions aimed at causing physical or bodily harm to a person or a group of people.
The main groups of causes
Be sure to consider the various reasons that can provoke the occurrence of aggressive behavior. So, scientists distinguish three main groups of factors: biological, social and psychological.
What are the biological causes of aggressive behavior?
- Heredity. Especially if it is burdened by various genetic problems, alcoholism, use of drugs or other psychotropic substances. Or if there are various viral infections in the history of parents.
- Sex hormones. Scientists have shown that the amount of certain hormones affects the aggressiveness of a person. Namely, in this case, the level of testosterone. It significantly increases in adolescence, during puberty of a person.
- Neurotransmitters. Experts say that the change in the neurotransmitter exchange process affects aggressive behavior. Namely, serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine.
- A special influence on the aggressiveness and deviant behavior of a person is exerted by the frontal lobe of the skull (it is she who plans and suppresses aggression). If she is injured or works incorrectly, the processes of aggressiveness and corresponding behavior can be disrupted.
It should be noted that experts say: you can not separately consider only one-sided reasons for aggressive behavior. Most often, the problem provokes a complex of various factors. So, it is important to note that the social environment of a person is of particular importance.
- Often, aggressive behavior is formed in the family from an early age as a normal form of communication with others.
- Psychologists say that less educated people are more likely to suffer from aggressive behavior. Therefore, we can conclude that the level of education also affects the aggression of a person.
- Aggressive behavior can also be formed at the workplace.
- If we talk about adolescents, then often this wrong behavior is formed in them as a result of communication in certain groups, groups. Also important is the commitment of the child to a particular subculture.
The peculiarity of personality traits can also influence the formation of aggressive behavior in a person. In this case, it is usually accepted to talk about:
- Emotional instability.
- Addictions to the emotions of anger, rage.
It is worth noting that the features of control and self-esteem of such a person are also of great importance. However, the most active here is the level of socialization of each individual (along with the assimilation of legal, moral and ethical norms of behavior), as well as the characteristics of the motivational sphere.
Other complex reasons
Aggressive behavior can also be provoked by other reasons, the so-called one-time ones.
- Pain. Scientists have proven experimentally that severe pain can cause aggressive behavior. And although the experiments were conducted on animals, the same rule applies to Homo Sapiens - a reasonable person.
- Heat. Scientists have long been saying that climatic conditions affect the human condition. So, if a tobacco smoke, sultry heavy air, bad smells “pushes” on an individual - this all can provoke outbursts of anger and aggressive behavior. However, this statement is more of a hypothesis, because scientists have not yet received direct evidence of this fact.
- Attack. Often, a person’s aggressive behavior is a response to the same actions of another individual. As they say, "an eye for an eye."
- Tightness Again, this fact has been proven with animal experiments. But still applies to man. If someone is placed in a tight space (for example, a cage), over time, aggression and aggressive behavior occurs.
- Alcohol and various psychotropic substances are often the direct cause of the emergence of aggressive behavior in many individuals.
- Excitement, including sexual, can also trigger this problem.
It should be noted that the aforementioned psychologist Bass describes the characteristics of aggressive behavior on the basis of three extremely simple scales:
- Physical - verbal (verbal) aggressive behavior.
- Active - passive aggressive behavior.
- Direct - indirect aggressive behavior.
However, these are unstable forms, they may vary depending on the situation. For example, active physical aggressive behavior is striking another person, beating him. An inactive form is, for example, hiring a murderer or collusion with another person who will cause damage. Passive physical aggressive behavior is, for example, the desire to do everything not to allow another person to reach the top of his career. Further even easier. So, verbally active action is a verbal insult. A verbal inactive is the usual spread of gossip or dirty rumors.
It is also important to note that there are also various forms of aggressive behavior. So, most often, their scientists are arranged in special pairs.
- Physiological and pathological aggression. In the first case, the actions of a person are not malicious intent, but are committed to assert themselves, to master something. Here the concept of defensive aggressive behavior may also arise. In this case, the person simply turns on the defensive reaction and the instinct of self-preservation. In the second case, we are talking about deliberate, true aggressive behavior. Then the main goal is precisely the damage to another person.
- Separately, experts distinguish physical (physical) and verbal (verbal) aggression. It should be noted that in young children the first form of behavior prevails. In adults, verbal aggressive behavior is most common. In this case, the process of socialization and the transformation of certain behavioral reactions to adapt to existing moral and ethical standards play a huge role.
- Separately, there is also a hidden aggressive behavior (in this case, the person in the head loses various types of his actions relative to another person or group of persons) and open (subdivided into two subsequent types).
- There is open direct and open indirect aggressive behavior. In the first case, the actions are directed directly to the object that you want to harm. In the second case, the harm can be done indirectly. Most often this is done through anonymous letters, the dissolution of gossip. It is also important to note that it is indirect aggressive behavior that can manifest itself openly or on the sly (these are complaints, lies, denunciations, cavils, gloating).
It should also be noted that the founder of psychoanalysis, Günther Ammon, identifies three main types of aggression (respectively, and aggressive behavior):
- Constructive. In this case, aggressive behavior has socially acceptable forms.
- Destructive. Here aggressive behavior has a socially unacceptable form.
- Deficit Patients with various psychosomatic abnormalities or diseases most often suffer from it. In this case, it is customary to talk about the lack of existing behavioral skills.
Aggressive behavior can also be divided into two types with respect to its focus:
- Extrapunitive behavior. That is, external, aimed at other people.
- Intrapunitive behavior. Aiming solely at yourself. This is the so-called auto-aggression.
A few words about children
The aggressive behavior of children is a rather large set of problems that must be addressed from an early age. After all, if time does not take certain measures, the child can harm not only too many people, but also themselves. Also, the running forms of this state are rather difficult to correct and correct.
Psychological portrait of an aggressive child
It should be noted that the aggressive behavior of preschoolers is a very common phenomenon. However, how can you find out that the child has problems and that he already needs help at this stage? So, for this you need to know what signs indicate that the baby is aggressive, and not any other behavior.
- High frequency of aggressive behavior. If a child more than 4 times an hour shows hostility towards others, his behavior can be qualified as aggressive.
- The predominance of physical aggression. That is, the child tries to inflict bodily harm on people from his environment: strike, kick, pinch, etc.
- Directivity of behavior. It can be said with confidence that a child has big problems if it is precisely the infliction of pain that becomes the goal of his aggressive behavior (for example, offending in order to take away a toy).
Sources of aggressive behavior in the children's team
It is also important to note that the aggressive behavior of children is provoked by the following main factors or, as they are called in psychology, sources:
- Feeling of fear. A child may behave aggressively if he does not trust others, if he sees danger in his environment.
- Bans. Very often, the reason for the aggressive behavior of the baby are the prohibitions that make it impossible to realize the plans or desires of the crumbs. The reason becomes the usual dissatisfaction of needs.
- Independence. Also, the child may behave aggressively, defending their right to a certain territory (toy). This is a manifestation of independence, an attempt to gain freedom.
The basis of aggressive manifestation in children
However, it is still necessary to say that the aggressive behavior of children of preschool age is most often caused by the way of life to which the baby is used. What does it mean? Small children copy everything that happens in their immediate environment. And most often it is a family. Practicing psychologists and psychotherapists note that the majority of children with aggressive behavior adopt this form of communication from the relations of older relatives: parents, grandparents. That is, if it is customary in the family to curse, call names and sometimes kick each other, you must understand that the child will do the same with other people around him in the outside world. Many parents simply need to first pay attention to themselves, and then only look for flaws in their children.
Also often the aggressive behavior of children of preschool age is caused by ordinary jealousy. That is, the negative behavior of the child simply wants to draw attention to themselves. Most often this occurs when another baby is born in the family, and the first child is given much less time.
But here we must remember: if you do not correctly respond to single flashes of aggressiveness and appropriate behavior, this can turn into a bad habit. And to cope with this will be much more difficult.
As mentioned above, the aggressive behavior of younger students is a very common problem. How, then, do parents react correctly? What you need to do to further exacerbate the condition?
- We must remember that the ban and aggression - this is not the best reaction to the aggressive behavior of the baby. Pay the child the same is not worth it. We must try to understand the reasons for this behavior, as well as try to eliminate them.
- No need to sharply stop the aggressive behavior of the child. This should be done gradually. We must try to give the crumb the opportunity to throw out their aggression. Or move it to something else. For example, you can let a child tear a picture of his enemy. As a result, the number of manifestations of aggressive behavior in real life will decrease significantly.
- Children need to show the correct example. Therefore, when they need to try not to get angry, do not shout, do not offend others. For example, to hit a husband in the shoulder with anger is to set a bad example for your child.
Parents should remember that aggressive behavior is not always bad. More precisely, it can sometimes be a natural defense against the actions of others. So you can not blame the baby immediately. It is best to teach him to manage his outbursts of anger. This skill will definitely come in handy for life. And, of course, while the child is small, you need to embrace, kiss, say that he is loved and valuable as often as possible. After all, often aggressive behavior of schoolchildren is just a desire to attract attention to themselves.
A few words about teens
A separate topic is children in puberty. And, of course, a huge problem is the aggressive behavior of adolescents. It is worth noting that the reasons for this are most often the following: fluctuations in the level of hormones and the influence of the immediate environment. So, about the first paragraph, everything has been said above. What about the second? Psychologists say that adolescence is the time of becoming a child as a person, his growing up. Here there is a desire to show independence as often as possible. But the problem is that not all parents are ready for this. And again, bans come to the fore, which are the main provocateurs of such behavior. At the same time, the aggressiveness of children is often increased as a result of their communication in certain groups. Teenagers often cooperate in the so-called interest companies. Some of them aim at sabotage not only parents and people around them, but also themselves (groups of adolescents who are prone to suicidal behavior). In this case, the child should be removed from such a group as soon as possible.
Correction behavior of young children
Separately, it is also necessary to consider such a subparagraph as the correction of the child’s aggressive behavior. What can a parent do to get rid of this problem?
- Ignoring insignificant aggression. However, you can not just pretend that nothing happened. You can say: "Baby, I know that you feel bad, I understand you." It is strictly forbidden to shout and answer the same.
- If a small child begins to show aggression, you should try to switch his attention to something interesting. That is, the baby must be distracted.
- We must learn to take the child out of the state of aggression. So, you can come up, take his hand (distracting maneuver) and ask if he is tired, maybe wants to drink or eat.
Psychologists say that an excellent correction of children's aggressive behavior is a variety of physical exercises. However, for this the child must himself want to cope with the problem. That is, in moments when he will feel a surge of aggression and a desire to make someone bad, you need to start to squat, do exercises for your fingers, etc. This is a great not only distracting, but also a calming maneuver.
How can you distract yourself from outbursts of aggression and aggressive behavior? So, the child should know that the following actions will help him:
- It is necessary to inhale the air, briefly hold the breath, and then exhale.
- If there is such an opportunity, it is necessary to be like.
- Excellent clenching fists helps.
- The usual tearing of paper helps to cope with aggressive behavior.
- If a child has frequent flashes of aggressive behavior, he should always have two walnut nuts with him. At the time of the tide of rage, they must be shaken in their hands, thrown away, thereby being distracted.
It is important to note that the correction of aggressive behavior in young children is often not enough only through the efforts of the parents. One should not hesitate to involve in this action specialists - psychologists, psychotherapists.
Correction of adolescent behavior
Aggressive adolescent behavior is also a very common problem. A lot of modern children at puberty become unmanageable. Parents themselves have a huge influence on this, communicating with the outside world, as well as television. What can be the correction of aggressive behavior of adolescents, what should it include?
- Calm reaction. Most often, the aggressive behavior of a teenager is aimed precisely at hurting his parents, “driving himself out”. In this case, you should try to do everything so that after a flash of anger, the child has a sense of shame for their actions. It is also possible during inappropriate behavior to ask leading questions about fatigue, hunger or thirst (as is the case with young children).
- A parent should remember to focus not on the adolescent himself, but on his behavior. That is, not a child is bad, but his manner of communication with others. During the analysis of the situation, it is necessary to concentrate on this case, not recalling previous similar ones.
- When adolescents also need to control their negative emotions, outbursts of anger. And for aggressive behavior should not be afraid to ask for forgiveness from the child.
- Correction of the aggressive behavior of adolescents prohibits such completely ineffective methods as threats, name-calling, the use of physical force.
- The best way to get a teenager out of aggression is to be calm. The child is discouraged and reassured.
The prevention of aggressive behavior is also very important. After all, as they say, the problem is better to prevent than to deal with it later. What, then, should be remembered?
- Correct formation of a circle of interests. It is necessary to involve the child in those activities that have a positive effect on the formation of the personality: music, sports, reading.
- The child will not have time for anger and aggression if he is involved as often as possible. In this case, various activities will be relevant: labor, sports, organizational, artistic, etc.
- Even in the most difficult situations, one must pay attention to the positive aspects of the character of the child. And not on the negative.
- It is impossible to respond to the aggressive behavior of the child. In this case, he will understand that he is doing wrong. Otherwise, this behavior will repeat exactly.
- Need to respect the feelings of children. Also need to listen to them. It is very important to find out the cause of aggressive behavior. After all, the only way in the future it will be possible to stop this problem.
What else involves the prevention of aggressive behavior of children and adolescents? So, parents should remember that aggression is the release of a huge amount of energy. That is why we must try to redirect it to the right direction. It can be work, tearing paper or even a pillow fight.