The doctrine of the Russian Navy is such that practically do not provide for the use of aircraft carriers. The reasons are many, but one of them are huge financial costs of maintaining such vessels. During the Soviet Union in the way of their creation were made first steps, but the only ship of this class in our country is "Admiral Kuznetsov". This carrier has a rather complex and interesting history of creation and operation.
Probably not everyone knows that only the USSR had built five aircraft carriers. Where did the other four of the ship? We answer these questions and discuss the main technical characteristics of ship "Admiral Kuznetsov". This aircraft carrier began designing shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union (together with other similar ships).
Following are the projects implemented in the form of the ships built or existed in the form of models and sketches:
So where are the "Kuznetsov"?
The latter ship is the "Admiral Kuznetsov". Carrier this order of the Council of Ministers started to be developed in late 1978.
History of development and construction
In the early spring months of 1981 the Nikolaev shipyard received a long-awaited order for the construction of a new cruiser. But the fall in long-suffering project was again significant changes: the displacement of the ship was required to increase from 10 thousand tons. As a result, the current value of this indicator is 67 thousand tons. Among other things, the designers found it necessary to add the following innovations to the sketches:
- On Board ship it was necessary to establish the SSN "Granit".
- The need to increase the aviation group at once to 50 units.
- Most important of all, the planes had to launch without the use of catapults, simple trampoline method. This not only reduces the cost of construction, but also greatly extended the service life of the cruiser.
The final model of the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" was finished only in 1982. Laid him in September of the same year on the Nikolaev shipyards, initially giving the name of "Riga" and the number (by factory catalog) 105. Just two months later, the ship was renamed, after which it becomes "Leonid Brezhnev". In December during the installation of the first building block. Actually, it was the first cruiser in the history of the Soviet shipbuilding, which consisted entirely of blocks (24 pieces).
The length of each was about 32 meters, the height was 13 feet. The weight of each item sometimes reached 1.7 thousand tons. Incidentally, all add-ons of a huge ship is also made according to the block diagram. But not only this unique "Admiral Kuznetsov". The carrier, whose characteristics we described in this article, during normal operation, supplying plants could be built in three to four years that ships of this class – an absolute record.
Alas, the unhurried work of the plants several times slowed down its entry into the Soviet Navy.
Installation of onboard systems
Ordering of all power and energy installations were made in 1983-1984. Plants brought: they rebounded strongly from the graph, resulting in the installation of engines and turbines had to partially disassemble the case and in some areas remove the top deck. The French spy satellites first captured the ship in 1984. In that time, his readiness was not less than 20%.
The stocks of the cruiser pulled in late 1985. The weight of the hull and mounted at the time systems does not exceed 32 thousand tons. Experts assessed the readiness of the aircraft carrier 38.5%.
The cost of the ship in those years was estimated at 720 million rubles, and the price increase by 200 million was due as time delays of suppliers. In response to this again changed the chief designer, who at this time was L. Belov. The ship was completed by around 80%. On the ship by the time everything was installed more than half of all electronic equipment, and a big part was able to deliver only to 1989 (scheduled delivery was in 1984).
First out to sea
The first sea dated October 20, 1989. He was formally allowed and approved by all project participants. Basically, by the time the ship was finally ready, but has not yet been delivered aviation group. The hike lasted a little over a month. When was the first landing on the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov"? It happened on the first of November 1989. The su-27 first began testing. Immediately after his landing from the deck left the MiG-29 K, which also did not have any problems.
All weapons and radar systems were installed only in 1990. Still, the readiness of the cruiser reaches 87%. In the spring and summer of that year began to conduct sea trials of the ship. Finally, in October of the same year, the ship gets its final name. Now this is the Russian aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov".
During the first stage of testing a cruiser on their own overcome more than 16 thousand nautical miles, with its deck almost 500 times planes taking off. No landing on the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" have not ended state of emergency that the test of the courts for the first time – just a great figure!
The first test was completed in late 1990. Up to 1992, passed the final stage of State acceptance (in the Russian black sea fleet), then the ship-the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" is included in the Northern Fleet.
The basics of ship design
As we already said, the ship consists of exactly 24 blocks, each of which weighs about 1.5 tons. Body made by welding, has seven decks and the two big platforms. To lift items of this size and mass, the Soviet engineers had to use Finnish cranes "cane", each of which could raise to the desired height up to 900 tons. The peculiarity of the ship is in the fact that his entire body is covered with a special coating that efficiently absorbs enemy radar signal.
By the way, on the recent modernization, which was the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov". The latest news suggests that the composition was significantly improved, so that the ability of a huge ship to literally "disappear" in the sea has become even more impressive.
If the (very arbitrary) to divide the ship at an average floor of residential house, the amount thereof will be equal to 27. Generally inside the cruiser is located immediately 3857 spaces that perform a variety of functions. It should be noted that only the cabins (which are divided into four classes) here 387 pieces, 134 sailors ' forecastle, six large tablespoons, about fifty well-equipped showers for personnel. Thus, the Russian aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" is a real floating city! Its autonomy – a month and a half.
It may seem that this is not enough. But it until then, until you find out the number of crew and flight crews. Personnel on Board – more than 1.5 thousand people. Pilots 626. Just imagine the complexity of providing food and drink for more than two thousand people a month and a half in the open sea! So the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov", which can really capture the imagination, and in fact monumental.
Only in the construction of the ship the engineers had to use over four thousand (!) kilometres of cable, 12 thousand kilometers of pipes for the circulation of liquids of different purposes. The area of the through-deck is 14 000 m2. It ends with a ramp, the slope of which is equal to 14.3 degrees at the steepest part. Jump at the highest point is 28 meters high rises above the water. The maximum speed of 32 knots. In economy mode, the vehicle accelerates up to 16 nodes.
Deck and runways
On the edges of the deck and the bow trampoline equipped with special fairings. Planes on the deck of the cruiser are delivered by lifts, capacity of which is 40 tons each. Delivery of aircraft units produced to the stern and to the bow. Deck width is 67 meters. The total length of the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" is of 304.5 meters.
The depth of the draft of the giant cruiser is 10.5 meters.
Directly to the intended landing area of the deck length 250 meters, width of 26 meters. It is situated with a slope of seven degrees. To cover this area by scientists at the time had developed a special composition of "omega", which prevents slipping and protects the material of the deck from temperature extremes. For the sections, which made takeoff and landing "verticular" Yak-41, used resistant plate AK-9ФМ.
The total number of launch lanes to two, and they converge in the highest point of the jump, which is generally distinguished from other ships of the same class aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov". The star, located on its stem, emphasizes the majestic and formidable features of the huge cruiser.
On the left side is a spare runway length is 180 metres. To protect staff, across the deck mounted vents, equipped with powerful cooling systems. To ensure a safe landing of the flight units, use the arresting gear "Svetlana-2". In case of emergency there is a setting (safety barrier) with a "speaking" name, "Hope." For landing aircraft meets the system telemetry and command "Luna-3".
Storage the most part of the air group is a special protective hangar length 153 meters, width 26 meters. The height of this office space is equal to 7,2 meters. In the hangar is approximately 70% of all flying units of the ship. In addition, there are fire trucks and emergency trucks. Planes from the hangar are displayed in semi-automatic mode, the deck as their are tractors. The whole hangar is divided by four, special "curtains", which are installed to enhance fire safety.
To enhance the "survivability" of the ship interior partitions designed as a sandwich of alternating layers of steel and fiberglass. The yield strength of the metal used for the construction of walls – 60 kgf/mm2. All tanks refuellers, premises and transport for the transport of ammunition is protected by a layer of armor.
"Kuznetsov" is also unique in the fact that it (for the first time in the history of the domestic shipbuilding) used underwater combined protection. Its depth is about five meters. The ship could withstand flooding of five contiguous sections, which total length is approximately 60 meters.
"Reports from the fronts"
By the way, where is now the famous aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov"? News is reporting that currently, the ship and its crew are in new York city, returning from a long training trip on the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. In the course of planes and helicopters on deck level repeatedly practiced methods of air combat and interception preventive purposes.
That's where the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov is now. It should be noted that at any time he can withdraw from the parking lot and once again go on a long hike.