Jansson Abel Tasman was born in the village Lutjegast, near the city of Groningen in 1603 (the exact date of birth remains unknown). The Navigator was of humble origin. Before entering the service of the East India company of the Netherlands, about him almost no information. Church documents recorded that in 1631 Tasman for the second time married a girl from a poor and illiterate family.
From sailor in skippers
About 30 years Tasman was a sailor on one of the ships of the East India company. The organization involved in the trade of goods from far Eastern countries, has given Abel the opportunity to make a brilliant career. Already in 1634, a sailor was skipper (in other words, a captain on a commercial ship).
Like other employees of the company, Tasman was served by the carriage of herbs and spices, which were the most valuable commodities on the European market. He regularly traveled the route of the Brouwer – sea route that began at the Cape of Good Hope and ended belonging to the Netherlands Java. The skipper had to command the ships in conditions of frequent storms, which traditionally occurs between the 40th and 50th degree of southern latitude (this space sailors call Roaring forties). Regular storms happening due to high winds – those winds which allowed the Dutch to quickly get to Java and back.
The continuation of a career
The first time was on the Tasman route Brouwer in 1633, when he sailed from the Dutch island of Texel to Batavia. So then called present-day Jakarta. Then he went on the Malaysian island of Seram. Abel had almost died. The Dutch had a conflict with the locals, which resulted in the killing of several companions the Navigator.
In 1937 Tasman returned to Amsterdam. At home, he has signed a new contract with the East India company for a period of ten years. Taking his wife with him, skipper finally moved to Batavia. In 1638, the Dutch went on a trip to India. A year later, he participated in research expeditions, the aim of which was the Northern part of the Pacific ocean. Tasman visited Formosa (modern Taiwan, where the Dutch some time belonged to several FORTS) and Dejima – Japanese trading port, built on an artificial island.
Fame of Abel Tasman received in 1639. Having sailed from Batavia, he walked past the Philippine Islands and together with captain Mattis Custom discovered the island of Bonin, which before were only legends. The initiator of the voyage of Tasman was Anthony van Diemen – the Governor of the Dutch East Indies. According to legend, he instructed the skipper this mission, that he was as far away from his daughter that Abel was in love. The end point of the journey was again Japan, where the sailor stopped in Tokyo, after which he returned to Batavia.
The discovery of Tasmania and New Zealand
Van Diemen was extremely pleased with the results of the expedition of 1639. Soon Abel Tasman set off on a new journey. This time he had to go beyond the traditional trade routes and sent to New Holland (Australia) in order to determine whether it is connected with New Guinea.
14 Aug 1642 Abel Tasman again sailed from Batavia. Under his guidance were two boats. Three weeks later the expedition reached the Mascarene Islands. "South mainland", to which she was heading at the time was the source of most incredible rumors and conflicting information.
November 24, Abel Tasman made, probably the most important discovery. It ships approached a large island, immediately called Vendimeve land (on behalf of the Governor of the Dutch East Indies, patron of the expedition). Today it is known as Tasmania. This name was given to the island in 1856.
After landing on the Eastern shore of the island, the Dutch realized that Wadimena the earth habitable. The sailors, fearing that in the jungle can live giants, refused to go deeper into the forests. Then Abel Tasman returned to the sea and went further East. December 13th saw the outline of another unknown island. The Navigator mistook it for a piece of land, open Showteam and Le-Er near Cape horn. In fact it was a South island – one of the two major Islands of New Zealand.
A skirmish with Maori
18 Dec 1642 Tasman's ships came in handy discovered the Bay and anchored. The court then drew the attention of the natives. Never before had they seen European ships and did not dare to approach strangers closer than a stones throw away. It was a Maori – tall and dark-skinned people of New Zealand.
Abel Tasman travel which had brought him to the natives of distant countries, decided to send him to the boat with the sailors. The Maori went into a rage and killed three of the Dutch. The rest of the sailors jumped into the sea and was rescued by the appeared in time to help the boats. The natives managed to escape in the jungle, and the team did not revenge the deaths of their comrades. Place of death of three of the Dutch for a long time became known as murderers Bay (now Golden Bay – Golden Bay).
On the islands of Tonga
After the incident with the Maori, Abel Tasman, whose biography is the most famous thanks to this journey, headed North, without losing sight of the coast of new Zealand. South island was replaced by North. Reaching its end, the Dutch did not go around this new land and continued its path towards the ocean.
On 21 January 1643 Abel Tasman, the opening of which has not yet ended, the first Europeans reached the Islands of Tonga. They got Dutch names: Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Middelburg. Here the sailors got a new food: chickens, pigs and fruit. 6 Feb opened the Fiji archipelago, named then in honor of Prince William. Passing by it, the ships of Tasman almost crashed because of the dangerous reefs on the North-East side of these Islands. The locals were in a state of primitive society. The population practiced ritual cannibalism and did not differ hospitality.
Return to Batavia
After the Fiji court of Tasmania closer to New Guinea and visited the places investigated by Showteam and Le-Er. All the numerous small Islands that the Dutch had met on the way were plotted on a map Navigator expedition Frans Whisker.
June 15 at Batavia the expedition returned, which was led by Abel Tasman. Today its results are listed. However, in the XVII century New Zealand and other open land management was not interested in the Dutch East Indies. All the goals the researcher has not reached. First he found the mysterious southern continent – Antarctica. Abel Tasman (years of life which 1603-1659) until his death was considered open to them New Zealand part of this mysterious land.
A new journey
In January 1644 began the second and last major expedition of Tasman in the South-East. This time three Dutch ship rounded the South of New Guinea and headed toward the Northern coast of Australia. Here they waited for the waters of the vast Gulf of Carpentaria, into the mainland by as much as 600 kilometers. The first Europeans in it in 1606, visited Willem Janson, however, this region remained poorly studied. Tasman got there due to the fact that I missed the Torres Strait, separating Australia from New Guinea. The Dutch prevented the reefs, which were forced to adjust course, first to South and then to West side. The expedition returned to Batavia in August 1644.
The activities of the Tasman as the discoverer has ended. He was appointed to the Legal Council of Batavia, and made the commander. In 1647, the authorities sent the Tasman in Bangkok as a diplomat to establish contact with the king of this Eastern country. A little later, the captain took command of the detachment of ships during the conflict, the Netherlands and Spain.
The legacy of the Navigator
In 1651 Tasman retired. Even historians are unable to reconstruct the events of the late stage of his life. It is known only that the sailor died in Batavia in 1659 at the age of 56 years.
Everything that was named after Abel Tasman (the island, the sea and the basin), was named after his death. Contemporaries considered his expedition a failure. The East India company failed to find new areas suitable for trade. For almost one hundred years, Europeans did not return to the development of New Zealand. Everything changed after the British expeditions of James cook. In the XVIII and XIX centuries was restored fairness to this researcher, as Abel Tasman. New Zealand, for example, has a national Park, the lake and the Bay its name.